A China-India Partnership, its Vast Global Potential


    Syllabus: GS2/ India & Foreign Relations, International Organisations & Groupings

    In News

    • With a third of the global population, China and India are natural partners in building a global community of a shared future

    Opportunity for China and India

    • Shared values of civilisation:
      • As Asian civilisations that have been living side by side for thousands of years, China and India share common thoughts on the future and destiny of mankind.
        • The Chinese people have cherished the vision of “a world of fairness and justice for the common good” since ancient times. 
        • Ancient Indian literature also records the motto of “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam”.
      • In the 1950s, China and India jointly initiated the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence, which has turned into basic norms governing international relations. These are:
        • Mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, 
        • Mutual non-aggression, 
        • Non- interference in each other’s internal affairs, 
        • Equality and mutual benefit, and 
        • Peaceful coexistence.
    • Responsibility of development:
      • As two largest developing countries and emerging market economies, each with a population of over one billion, China and India are both at a crucial stage of development and revitalisation
      • They have the responsibility, the ability and the opportunity to once again illuminate the path forward for mankind with Oriental wisdom. 

    China’s Proposal for Global Community of Shared Future

    • About:
      • A white paper China recently released titled “A Global Community of Shared Future: China’s Proposals and Actions”.
    • Objective:
      • It advocates forging greater synergy to achieve lasting peace, developing a conducive environment for common security, instilling greater confidence in common development, providing sustainable driving forces for mutual learning among civilisations, and taking more actions to protect the ecology.
    • International community’s agreement to the idea:
      • The vision of a global community of shared future has been included in United Nations General Assembly Resolutions for six consecutive years 
      • It is also incorporated in the resolutions and declarations of multilateral mechanisms such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) and BRICS
      • It has won the international community’s understanding and support, especially among developing countries, and has a clear path forward.
    • China’s contributions:
      • The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has become a popular global public good and a cooperation platform provided by China to the world. 
      • The Global Development Initiative, Global Security Initiative, and Global Civilization Initiative point to the direction of human progress.

    Vision points for India & China

    • Keeping to the correct direction of economic globalisation: 
      • Jointly build an open world economy that reflects the demands and represents the interests of developing countries. 
      • Unilateralism, protectionism, decoupling, and the zero-sum game of the “winner-takes-all” should be rejected.
    • Following the right path of peaceful development: 
      • The trend today is the pursuit of peace, development, cooperation, and win-win results. 
      • The old path of colonialism and hegemonism leads to a dead end and those who follow it will pay a heavy price. 
      • Only by working together to pursue peace, safeguard peace, and share peace, can countries achieve their development goals and make greater contributions to the world.
    • Fostering a new type of international relations: 
      • By building a global community of a shared future, emerging countries and established powers can avoid falling into the trap of wars and build common ground and achieve common development for different civilisations and countries with different social systems. 
      • Countries should uphold the principles of mutual respect, equity and justice, and mutually beneficial cooperation so as to build broader and deeper global partnerships based on equality, openness, and cooperation.
    • Practising true multilateralism: 
      • Seeking supremacy in the name of multilateralism is still unilateral thinking. “Selective multilateralism” is practising falsity. 
      • The world should be fair and free from domineering practices.
        • There is only one system for the world, which is the international system with the United Nations at its core. 
        • There is only one order for the world, which is the international order based on international law. 
        • There is only one set of rules for the world, which is the basic norms governing international relations based on the purposes and principles of the UN Charter.
    • Promoting the common values:
      • Promoting the common values of peace, development, equity, justice, democracy and freedom of humanity. 
      • There is no single model of democracy that is universally applicable, far less a superior one. 


    • Deteriorating bilateral relationship:
      • Since the Galwan clashes of 2020, India’s bilateral relationship with China has entered one of its worst phases.
      • While acknowledging that China is an important neighbouring country, Indian policymakers have been underscoring the importance of mutual respect and adherence to agreements to maintain a positive and constructive relationship. 
    • Contestation on global platforms:
      • From the SCO and BRICS to the United Nations and the Indo-Pacific, the Sino-Indian contestation is moving from the bilateral to the global arena
    • Objection over UN reforms:
      • China is the only country among five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) that is opposing India’s entry into the powerful body.
      • for India to articulate it openly makes it evident that New Delhi has no faith in the UNSC reforming anytime soon. 
      • As a result, India is signalling that it will work with other platforms to pursue its global interests and contribute to the global order.
    • Disunity over BRICS Expansion:
      • The future of BRICS is also under stress as the Chinese attempt to expand the platform is being resisted by India and Brazil
      • Beijing is focused on a quick expansion with the aim of giving the platform a distinctly anti-Western orientation, which India seems to have no interest in.
      • India is keen that the principles defining the expansion process are articulated clearly.

    Way ahead

    • China and India could jointly work hand in hand with global development, security and civilisation initiatives to demonstrate the common will and resolution of the Global South countries to build an open, inclusive, clean and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security, and common prosperity.
    • India will also have to work more closely with like-minded nations in creating and sustaining new institutional frameworks that not only respond to today’s geostrategic realities but also serve Indian interests that are increasingly becoming more global.
    Daily Mains Question
    [Q] China and India are natural partners in building a global community of a shared future. Analyse. Underscore the challenges faced by them at the bilateral level as well as at the global arena.