Bias in AI is a key topic of concern

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    • UNESCO’s framework for moral AI would have a far-reaching influence on the complete gamut of AI actions.
      • The facets of AI which will be affected are
        • improvement, 
        • software, 
        • ethicality, 
        • information privateness, and 
        • regulation.
      • It is still under consultation and not fully developed.

    What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

    • It is a machine which mimics the human brain for learning and accomplishes different tasks that would have historically required human intelligence.
      • Different technologies like machine learning, pattern recognition, big data, neural networks, self algorithms etc are included in it.
    • Example:
      • Sophia: First Humanoid robot to get citizenship like a human.
      • Siri, Alexa and other virtual assistants.
      • Deepfake
      • Self Driving Cars
    • It is a complex technology which involves training the machine algorithms with sample data and making it react in a particular way.
      • Different situations create a self learning pattern where the machine starts to answer the questions which were never answered like a human would ever do.

    Benefits of AI:

    • Cut back the human interference in repetitive decision making.
    • Better data oriented decisions.
    • No problem of labour or skill shortage.
    • It has multifaceted application from space to deep ocean exploration to day to day decision, policy making to security of borders.

    UNESCO’s Framework for Moral AI

    • It is an evolving framework encompassing all stakeholders and tries to address challenges faced by users due to systematic flaws.
    • Aim of this Framework: 
      • To have a holistic and evolving framework of values, ideas and actions 
      • To inform societies in dealing responsibly, with the recognized and unknown influence of AI on human beings and society at massive. 
      • To provide a moral framework to judge the AI across the world
      • To constructing neutral, non-discriminative and delicate AI platforms
    • UNESCO’s framework for moral AI can have a far-reaching influence within the area of AI like
      • sensitivity to privateness and inclusion; 
      • transparency, equity and non-discriminant; 
      • accountability by way of participation; 
      • mindset change that helps a sustainable AI setting and a correct steadiness between enterprise development and promotion of human values.

    Need of a Universal Framework for AI Ethics

    • Challenge of Biased data for training AI:
      • AI methods, we all know, are in-built and try to mimic human intelligence. 
      • The methods are taught by way of sharing monumental information of previous human actions to be taught from.
      • The major problem is that the data and historic information are studded with biases and discrimination.
      • It may be catastrophic as humans have certain limited capability but an ill trained AI can leave a significant impact on worldwide infrastructure.
    • Chances of Racial Discrimination:
      • Further, a bias against people of colour was found in AI of a criminal tracking network, which led to multiple misjudgments and false arrests.
    • Gender Bias:
      • Different studies have been found to inherently promote gender bias.
      • So, the AI too may pick up these lines of thinking creating a broken unreliable system.
    • Mode of Consent/ Right to Privacy:
      • With extra data about individuals and sharper algorithms, better suggestions, therapies and services are possible.
      • But it can also create a moral hazard.
      • Too much data can be used by notorious elements to harm a person or his integrity and dignity.
      • It is against the much debated right to privacy.
      • Further, shall the pop up on Windows be considered as true consent as most users without understanding the consequences, choose to give consent through pop ups.
      • The best example is the Cambridge Analytica Case where the choice of US Citizens were manipulated using data collected by Facebook.
    • Lack of enough Knowledge and Sensitiveness among Developers:
      • It is a major bottleneck as the developers, themselves, know very less about their products and ethical concerns associated with it.
      • The need is to involve different stakeholders on the development side of AI rather than only focusing on users.
    • Effect on the users of AI:
      • The newer algorithms of Google and Facebook are promoting polarisation by showing people only what they want to see.
      • It is creating a less tolerant society which lives in its own bubble.

    Solutions/ Way Forward suggested by Ethical Code by UNESCO

    • Systematic Method to access the biases and cure them:
      • To eliminate Gender and other biases, a systematic way of the AI improvement lifecycle needs to be developed. 
        • This system should include all dimensions including problems to prove that it has certainly been taken care of.
      • Accountability and possession need to be well-defined.
        • It will make sure equity and inclusion are adopted proper by way of the event, validation, and supply of an AI system. 
        • Extra importantly, all these components need to be a part of a regulatory and compliance framework.
      • Information assortment approaches and information distribution need to be streamlined to keep away from bias.
    • Role of Developers and Management:
      • Builders ought to make sure that the scope is neither myopic nor meant to usher in any intersection disparity. 
      • Moreover, the developers and management should retain the general societal influence of the outcomes in view.
      • The parameters which will play a really key function to make sure equity and moral finish in the final result are 
        • Information collections
        • Data curation and 
        • The methodology concerned 
    • More in depth studies on effect of AI on our life:
      • On this journey, simply consciousness just isn’t sufficient however recognition, acceptance and addressing of the difficulty is extra vital
      • The frameworks that assist a holistic inclusion of coders, builders, and decision-makers must be authorised and promoted. 
    • Promoting Stakeholder Partnership:
      • Seeing the massive impact of internet giants on a person’s behaviour, Search Engines need to balance between suitable search outputs and unbiased, conflict free and secular contents.

    Conclusion

    • Technology needs to serve humanity not the vice versa.
    • A technology without ethics will be nothing more than a ticking time bomb.
    • There is an urgent need to tackle the moral and ethical issues related to AI through an universal code of ethics which emcompasses all.

    India and AI

    • US India Artificial Intelligence (USIAI) initiative 
      • It has been launched to scale up the science and technology relationship between India and the United States.
    • Availability of Skilled labours and Entrepreneurs
      • As per Global AI Report 2019, India stood at the 9th position in terms of the number of the AI specialists working in the field. 
      • The US, China and the UK topped the list.
    • Introduction in School Curriculum
      • The CBSE has recently added AI as an elective subject for its 9th grade classes.
      • IIT Hyderabad has launched a full fledged Bachelor of Technology (B Tech) program in AI.
        • It became the first Indian educational institution to do so. 
      • IIIT Hyderabad is another educational institute that introduced popular executive programs on 
        • AI and machine learning and 
        • blockchain and distributed ledger technologies.
    • Usage in Defence
      • Indian Armed Forces are now venturing into AI and other smart tech based defence products and technologies.
    • Academia and Industry Collaboration
      • IBM’s Blue project is an example.
      • There are many startups in the country which are doing great work in image analytics, data analytics, predictive intelligence etc.
    • Huge potential
      • It is estimated that AI will add 957 billion dollars to India’s GDP by the year 2035.
      • It will boost India’s annual growth by 1.3% points.

    Source: TH