Guru Teg Bahadur Martyrdom Day

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    In News 

    • Recently, The Prime Minister of India has paid tributes to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji on his martyrdom day.

    About Guru Tegh Bahadur

    • Born: He was born at Guru Ke Mahal (now a Gurudwara with the same name), Amritsar in 1621.


    Image Courtesy: News 18

    • He had regular schooling from the age of six. Where he also learnt classical, vocal and instrumental music.
      • He was also given military training like horsemanship, swordsmanship, javelin throwing and shooting
      • He had witnessed and even participated in the battles of Amritsar and Kartarpur
        • But in spite of all this, he developed an extraordinary mystic nature in due course of time.
    • He was the fifth and the youngest son of Guru Hargobind Sahib
      • His childhood name was Tyag Mal.
    • He became the ninth Sikh Guru after the eighth guru, Guru Har Krishan (1656-1664) and was followed by the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708).
    • The Sikhs began to call him Teg Bahadur after the battle of Kartarpur against Painda Khan in which he proved to be a great sword player or gladiator.
    • Contributions
      • He resisted forced conversions of non-Muslims to Islam during Aurangzeb’s rule.
      • He contributed many hymns to the Guru Granth Sahib including the Saloks, or couplets.
      • He is known to have travelled extensively to preach the teachings of Nanak and Sikhism
      • He had set up community kitchens and wells for the local people wherever he went.
      • He founded the town of Chak-Nanki in Punjab, which later became a part of Anandpur Sahib, a famous holy city and a global tourist attraction in the foothills of the Himalayas.
    • Martyrdom: He was publicly killed in 1675 on the orders of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Delhi as he had opposed the policy of religious persecution being enforced at that time.
      • Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib and Gurdwara Rakab Ganj Sahib in Delhi are the sites of his execution and cremation, respectively.
    • Consequences of martyrdom: The martyrdom of Guru Sahib had consequences and deeply influenced the history of India. 
      • It exposed the fundamental theistic nature of the contemporary state, highlighted tyranny and injustice
      • It made the people of India hate Aurangzeb and his government as never before and turned the Sikh Nation into militant people. 
      • It made them feel that they could protect their religion (Dharma) only but the defence of arms.
      •  It proposed the way for the final stage in the creation of the Khalsa, which played the most important and significant role in the history of India.
    • Steps in his honour: One of the All India hockey tournaments has been named the “All India Guru Tegh Bahadur Gold Cup”.

    Ten Sikh Gurus

    1

    Guru Nanak (1469-1539)

    • Founder of Sikhism.
    • Travelled all over India speaking out against religious rituals, pilgrimages and the caste system.

    2

    Guru Angad (1504-1552)

    • A firm believer in education and founded many schools for children.
    • Began the tradition of Mall Akhara for young people, a form of physical, as well as spiritual, exercise.
    • Invented Gurumukhi (the language of the Guru).

    3

    Guru Amar Das (1479-1574)

    • Fought against caste prejudice and sought to establish social equality amongst people.
    • Built on Guru Nanak’s idea of Langar (free kitchen) where all followers, regardless of caste or wealth should eat together in the same place.

    4

    Guru Ram Das (1534-1581)

    • Founded the city of Amritsar in northwest India, the holy city for the Sikhs.
    • Also started the construction of the Harmandir Sahib (now known as the Golden Temple) at Amritsar.

    5

    Guru Arjan (1563-1606)

    • Compiled Adi Granth.
    • Finished the construction of Harmandir Sahib.
    • First Sikh Martyr.

    6

    Guru Hargobind (1595-1644)

    • Known as the ‘soldier saint’.
    • Erected Akal Takhat (throne of eternal God) and established two swords, Miri-Piri (representing soldiers and saints).
    • First Guru to teach that sometimes it was necessary to take up arms to defend the faith and to protect the weak and needy.

    7

    Guru Har Rai (1630-1661)

    • A peaceful leader who spreaded Guru Nanak’s teachings taking on missionary work.

    8

    Guru Harkrishan (1656-1664)

    • Installed as Guru at the young age of five.
    • Humanitarian and helped people suffering from a smallpox epidemic.
      • He contracted it and died before his eighth birthday.

    9

    Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621-1675)

    • A firm believer in people’s freedom to worship.
    • He himself refused to convert to Islam and was executed and martyred as a result.

    10

    Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708)

    • Last Guru.
    • Introduced Khalsa.
    • Put together Guru Granth Sahib and proclaimed it as the future Guru.

    Source: PIB