Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

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    In News

    • Recently, new research has found that the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine reduced the risk of developing cancer by 62 per cent in women between the ages of 14 and 16.

    About HPV

    • Types: HPV is a type of virus, of which there are more than 100 types. 
    • Transmission: More than 40 types of HPV are spread through direct sexual contact. 
    • Symptoms:
      • Most people do not develop any symptoms.
      • The virus can sometimes take years before it causes any symptoms.
    • Impacts: 
      • Out of these 40, two cause genital warts, while about a dozen of HPV cause different types of cancer including cervical, anal, oropharyngeal, penile, vulvar and vaginal.
      • India is home to 16-17 percent of the world’s population, globally 27 per cent of total cervical cancer cases are from here. 
      • In India, about 77 percent cases of cervical cancer are caused by HPV 16 and 18.
    • HPV Vaccines:
      • Quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil) – Protects against four types of HPV (HPV 16, 18, 6 and 11). 
      • Bivalent vaccine (Cervarix)– Protects against HPV 16 and 18 only. 
      • Non valent vaccine (Gardasil 9) – Protects against nine strains of HPV.
    • HPV vaccination in India:
    • In India, bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines were licensed in 2008 and a non valent vaccine was licensed in 2018. 
    • HPV vaccines are given as a two-dose regimen, six months apart for girls below the age of 14 years. 
    • For those who are 15 and older, the vaccine is given in a three-dose regimen.

    Source: IE