Skill India: Challenges, Solutions, & Government Schemes 


Skill India becomes necessary as many people in India don’t have jobs, and one of the main reasons for this is that the youth lack proper training. Only a small percentage of them have received formal or informal training. 

  1. In comparison to other countries like the UK, Germany, the USA, Japan, and South Korea, a very low percentage of India’s workforce has undergone formal skill training.
  2. As a result of this lack of training, many employers in India face difficulty finding qualified candidates to fill job vacancies. A recent survey showed that almost half of Indian employers struggle to find skilled workers.
  3. Interestingly, even among educated Indians, unemployment remains a problem. For example, a survey in 2018 found that around one-third of young people aged 15 to 29 years, who had received formal training, were still unable to find jobs.

Why is Skill India necessary?

Workforce skill development is essential for several reasons

Demand for Skilled Workers: There is a growing demand for a skilled workforce in India. The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) estimates that by 2023, the country will require about 300 million skilled workers to meet the demands of various sectors, particularly manufacturing.
Rising Unemployment: The unemployment rate in India has been on the rise, reaching around 7% or 8% in 2022 compared to about 5% five years ago. The pandemic has worsened the situation, causing many people to leave the workforce due to job dissatisfaction and lockdowns.
Supply and Demand Imbalance: India faces a problem of not enough job opportunities being created while professionals entering the job market lack the necessary skills. This has led to increasing unemployment rates and low employability.
Workforce Skill Shortage: Even though jobs are being created, many individuals lack the skills needed to be productive and employable. Reports show that a significant percentage of the population does not possess the necessary vocational training.

Challenges faced in the process of Skill India 

Skill India faces several challenges and issues that hinder its effective implementation and impact. Some of the key issues are:

  • Lack of Awareness: Many individuals, especially in rural areas, lack awareness about skill development programs and their benefits. They may not know about the available opportunities or how to access them.
  • Lack of Industry Linkages: Limited collaboration between skill training institutions and industries leads to a gap between what is taught and what the job market demands. 
  • Perception and Stigma: There is a perception among some sections of society that vocational training is inferior to traditional education, leading to a stigma around pursuing skill development courses.
  • Mobility and Accessibility: Access to skill development programs can be a challenge for people living in remote or disadvantaged areas.
  • Funding and Sustainability: Skill development programs require significant funding for infrastructure, training, and other resources. Ensuring sustainable funding is essential for the continuity and success of these initiatives.
  • Quality of Training: The quality of skill training programs varies widely. Some programs may not meet industry standards, leading to graduates with inadequate skills and knowledge for the job market.
  • Relevance to Industry Needs: Skill development programs may not always align with the current and future needs of industries. This mismatch between the skills taught and the skills required by employers can lead to underemployment or unemployment.
  • Infrastructure and Resources: Inadequate infrastructure and resources can limit the effectiveness of skill development initiatives. Lack of modern equipment and facilities hampers practical training.
  • Trainer Quality: The competence and training of instructors and trainers can impact the quality of skill training.

What are the Skill Development Schemes Launched by the Government of India?

The Government of India has launched various skill development schemes, including 

  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)
  • Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion (SANKALP)
  • Standard Training Assessment and Reward Scheme (STAR)
  • Polytechnic Schemes
  • Vocationalisation of Education

Way Forward to Promote Skill India 

Promoting skilling in India requires a comprehensive and multi-pronged approach involving the government, private sector, educational institutions, and civil society. Here are some strategies to promote skilling in India:

  • Strengthening Vocational Education: Enhance vocational education in schools and colleges by introducing skill-focused courses and practical training to instill job-ready skills from an early age.
  • Industry Partnerships: Foster strong collaborations between skill training institutions and industries to align training with the current and future needs of the job market.
  • Focus on Emerging Technologies: Include training programs for emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, data science, and renewable energy to meet the demands of the future job market.
  • Support for Marginalized Groups: Design targeted skill development initiatives for marginalized groups, including women, differently-abled individuals, and economically disadvantaged communities.
  • Government Schemes: Strengthen existing skill development schemes like the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) and introduce new schemes to cater to specific skill requirements.
  • Skill Development Centers: Establish and support skill development centers across the country to provide accessible training opportunities for different sectors.
  • Trainer Training Programs: Conduct regular training programs for instructors and trainers to improve their skills and ensure high-quality training delivery.
  • Certification and Recognition: Provide formal certification for skill development programs to increase their credibility and recognition among employers.
  • Financial Incentives: Offer financial incentives to individuals and businesses that invest in skill development, such as tax benefits and subsidies.
  • Entrepreneurship Training: Introduce entrepreneurship development programs to encourage individuals to start their own businesses and create jobs for others.
  • Public-Private Partnerships: Encourage public-private partnerships to combine resources and expertise for effective skill development initiatives.
  • Monitoring and Evaluation: Establish a robust monitoring and evaluation system to measure the outcomes of skill development programs and make necessary improvements.


Today workforce skill development is necessary to bridge the gap between job opportunities and the skill sets of job seekers, reduce unemployment rates, and meet the increasing demand for skilled workers in India’s evolving economy.

Addressing these issues requires a multi-faceted approach involving government support, private-sector collaboration, increased awareness, improved training quality, and regular assessment of outcomes.

By tackling these challenges, India can enhance its skilling ecosystem and empower its workforce for a more prosperous future.


What is the Skill India scheme?

Skill India is a government initiative in India aimed at enhancing the employability of the youth by providing them with skill training. It offers various programs to improve vocational skills and make individuals more job-ready.

What are Skill India’s PMKVY and its components?

Skill India’s flagship scheme is the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY), which aims to provide better livelihood opportunities to youth through skill training. The scheme covers assessment and training fees, and those with prior experience can get certified. PMKVY has several components, including short-term training for dropouts and the unemployed, Kaushal and Rozgar Melas for community participation, recognition of prior learning, special projects, monitoring guidelines, and placement rules.

Is the Skill India certificate valid?

Yes, the Skill India certificate is valid and recognized by the government and industries. It validates the successful completion of skill training and enhances the chances of employment.

What skills are covered by Skill India?

Skill India covers a wide range of skills, including technical, soft, and vocational skills. It encompasses sectors like manufacturing, healthcare, construction, retail, and more.


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