Hornbill Nest Adoption Program (HNAP)


    In News

    • Recently, the Hornbill Nest Adoption Program of Arunachal Pradesh celebrated a decade of successful conservati­on.

    About HNAP

    • HNAP is a community-based conservation initiative, through which local tribal villagers protect nest trees of hornbills in forests around villages on the fringe of the Pakke Tiger Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh
    • It is led by hunter-turned-protectors from the Nyishi tribe.
    • It was launched in November 2011 and  the field implementation started from January 2012.

    Hornbills Birds

    • About:
      • The hornbills (scientific name Bucerotidae), are a family of birds found in tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia.
      • They are typically large-headed, with thin necks, broad wings, and long tails. The plumage is brown or black, usually with bold white markings.
      • Hornbills nest in cavities, usually in large trees. In all species except the two ground hornbills (Bucorvus), the male walls in the female on the nest, closing the hole with mud except for a small opening through which he passes food. 
      • India is home to nine species of hornbills. The northeastern region of India has the highest diversity of hornbill species. 
      • The Hornbill festival celebrated in Nagaland is named after the bird – Hornbill which is the most revered and admired bird for the Nagas. 
    • Threats:
      • Hornbills are hunted for their casques i.e. upper beak and feathers for adorning headgear.
      • Tribal people hunt them for their parts for rituals and making headgears and other decorations and even as a delicacy.
      • Habitat loss and hunting are major threats.
      • Forest clearance for agriculture.
    • Significance: 
      • Hornbills are called ‘forest engineers’ or ‘farmers of forest’ for playing a key role in dispersing seeds of tropical trees, hornbills indicate the prosperity and balance of the forest they build nests in.
      • Since hornbills consume and spread seeds of fruit species, they are important for the economy and culture of local communities.