Ethiopia – Tigray Conflict


    In News

    • The first formal African Union-led peace talks between an Ethiopian government team and Tigray forces are happening in South Africa.

    Important Events of Tigray Conflict

    • 1975: 
      • The ‘Derg’, a Soviet-backed Marxist military dictatorship led by Mengistu Haile Mariam was established in Ethiopia
      • The Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) was formed as a small ethno-nationalist paramilitary group and a political outfit 
    • 1991: Derg was ousted.
    • 1988: Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) was founded and ruled for nearly three decades.
    • 2020: 
      • The Ethiopian government began military operations in the Tigray region against the region’s ruling party, the TPLF.
      • Civilian structures in towns in Tigray, including hospitals, schools, factories, and businesses, were shelled, looted and destroyed by Ethiopian federal forces and by Eritrean armed forces.

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    About Ethiopia

    • The second most populous country in Africa
    • Situated in the strategic Horn of Africa region
    • It is bordered by Eritrea, Djibouti, Sudan, Somalia, and Kenya. 
    • Different Ethnic Groups:
      • Divided into 10 regions based on the concentration of ethnic groups. 
      • The Oromo– the largest ethnic group in the country, 
      • Amhara– the second largest group
      • The Tigrayans– an ethnic minority (constitute around 6-7 percent)

    Source: TH