First-ever in-person Quad Summit

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    In News 

    • Recently, the Quad Leaders Summit was hosted by the United States of America(USA).

    Major Points of Summit

    • Towards Afghanistan and Terrorism: 
      •  Quad nations announced to closely coordinate diplomatic, economic, and human-rights policies towards Afghanistan and deepen their counter-terrorism and humanitarian cooperation in accordance with United Nations Security Council 2593 (a resolution passed on August 30, when India held the presidency of the Council). 
      • They reaffirm that Afghan territory should not be used to threaten or attack any country or to shelter or train terrorists or to plan or finance terrorist acts.
    • European Union: 
      • The Quad also declared its support for the European Union’s September 2021 Indo Pacific Strategy. 
        • The announcement earlier this month of a U.S., Australia, U.K. security partnership in the Indo Pacific (‘AUKUS’) had gone down badly with France, a key EU nation. 

    AUKUS

    • Under it, the U.S., U.K will help Australia deploy nuclear-powered submarines in the Pacific region.
    • Focus: The focus of AUKUS will be on integrating all defence and security related science, supply chains, industrial bases and technology.
    • It will also focus on protecting shared values and promoting security and prosperity in the Indo-Pacific region
    • North Korea: 
      • The Quad called on North Korea to engage in substantive dialogue and for “an end to the violence in Myanmar.” 
        • It declared its support for the early restoration of democracy in Myanmar and the release of all political detainees, including foreigners.
    • Climate Change: 
      • Quad countries share a serious concern with the August Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s report findings on the latest climate science, which has significant implications for climate action. 
      • Quad countries intend to “update or communicate ambitious NDCs (Nationally Defined Contributions, i.e., climate action targets) “ before COP26.
        • It says countries will work with the “intent” to get to net-zero emissions “preferably” by 2050 “taking into account national circumstances.”
        • India has not yet made formal commitments for COP26 or committed to achieving ‘net zero’ by 2050.
    • Vaccine supply: 
      • India would begin supplying Johnson & Johnson/Janssen COVID-19 vaccines, with 8 million doses being made available by the end of October from (Telangana-based) pharma company Biological E Ltd.
    • New infrastructure partnership: 
      • The Quad launched a new infrastructure partnership – which would involve mapping the region’s infrastructure needs and providing technical assistance and evaluation tools for projects. 
    • It would work with the Blue Dot Network – a U.S., Australia and Japan’s private sector-led infrastructure effort in the region to counter China’s Belt and Road Initiative.
    • Critical and Emerging Technologies:
    • Quad leaders are committed to working together to foster an open, accessible, and secure technology ecosystem. They have organized work around four efforts: 
      • Technical standards, 5G diversification and deployment, horizon-scanning, and technology supply chains. 
    • Indo-Pacific region: 
      • India, the US and several other world powers have been talking about the need to ensure a free, open and thriving Indo-Pacific in the backdrop of China’s rising military manoeuvring in the region.
      • It should be free from coercion and disputes should be solved in accordance with international law. 
    • People-to-People Exchange and Education: 
      • Quad partners are proud to announce the Quad Fellowship: a first-of-its-kind scholarship program, operated and administered by a philanthropic initiative and in consultation with a non-governmental task force composed of leaders from each Quad country. 
    • Cybersecurity: 
      • The Quad will launch new efforts to bolster critical-infrastructure resilience against cyber threats by bringing together the expertise of our nations to drive domestic and international best practices. 
      • The Quad will Launch a Quad Senior Cyber Group.
    • Space
      • Quad countries are among the world’s scientific leaders, including in space. The Quad will begin space cooperation for the first time with a new working group. 
      • The Quad will Share Satellite Data to Protect the Earth and its Waters:

    About QUAD

    • Genesis of QUAD 
      • 2007: Japanese PM Shinzo Abe mooted the idea of Quadrilateral Security Dialogue.
        • Could not materialise due to the reluctance of Australia
      • December 2012: Shinzo Abe again initiated a concept of Asia’s Democratic Security Diamond, involving Australia, India, Japan and the US.
        • The aim was to safeguard the maritime commons from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific.
      • November 2017: QUAD Coalition was finally given a present-day form with the active participation of India, the US, Australia and Japan.
        • The aim was to keep critical sea routes open and free for navigation in the Indo-Pacific.
      • 2019: Foreign ministers of the four countries held their first meeting under the ‘Quad’ framework in New York in September 2019.
    • It is also known as Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD).
    • In 2020, all four QUAD Countries – Japan, India, Australia and the USA took part in the Malabar exercise.
    • It is a strategic dialogue with the objective to ensure a free, open, inclusive and prosperous Indo Pacific and address global challenges.

    Source: TH