Daily Current Affairs 27-06-2024

    0
    561

    Syllabus: GS2/ Polity

    • The post of the Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha has become a bone of contention between the ruling and the opposition party of India.
    • The Deputy Speaker serves as the Second-in-Command Presiding Officer of the Lower House of Parliament of India – the Lok Sabha.
    • According to Article 95(1), the Deputy Speaker performs the duties of the Speaker if the post is vacant. 
    • The Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha is elected by the Lok Sabha itself from amongst its members.
    • Article 93 states that “The House of the People shall, as soon as may be, choose two members of the House to be respectively Speaker and Deputy Speaker”.
    • The election of Deputy Speaker is governed by Rule 8 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha. According to Rule 8, the election “shall be held on such date as the Speaker may fix”. 
    • Usually, the Speaker is chosen from the ruling party or ruling alliance, while the Deputy Speaker is selected from the opposition party or opposition alliance.
      • However, there have been exceptions to this convention. 
      • The first four Deputy Speakers, from 1952 to 1969, were from the ruling Congress.
      • There was no Deputy Speaker for the entire duration of the 17th Lok Sabha (2019-24).
    • The Deputy Speaker performs the duties of the Speaker when the office of the Speaker is vacant.
    • The Deputy Speaker acts as the Speaker when the latter is absent from the sitting of the House.
    • The Deputy Speaker presides over joint sittings of both Houses of Parliament in case the Speaker is absent from such a sitting.
    • While performing the duties of or acting as the Speaker of Lok Sabha (i.e. while presiding over the sitting of Lok Sabha or a Joint Sitting of both the Houses), he/she assumes all the powers of the Speaker of Lok Sabha.
      • Thus, in such times, the Deputy Speaker cannot vote in the first instance, rather he/she can only exercise a Casting Vote in case of a tie.
    • When the Speaker presides over the House, the Deputy Speaker is like any other Ordinary Member of the House.
      • Thus, in such times, the Deputy Speaker can speak in the House, participate in its proceedings, and vote in the first instance on any question before the House.
    • He/she has one special privilege -Whenever the Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha is appointed as a member of a Parliamentary Committee, he/she automatically becomes its chairman.
    • The Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha can be removed by a resolution passed by the Lok Sabha by an Effective Majority (i.e. a majority of the total membership of the House excluding the vacant seats).
    • A motion of removal of the Speaker of Lok Sabha can be moved only after giving 14 days’ advance notice to the Speaker.
    • When a resolution for removal of the Deputy Speaker is under consideration, he/she cannot preside at the sitting of the house, though he may be present.

    Source: IE

    Syllabus: GS2/IR

    • India has asserted that as the United Nations turns 80 next year, it is “high time” to reform the Security Council.
    • The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for maintaining international peace and security. 
    • It was established in 1945 as part of the UN Charter and is composed of 15 member states, including five permanent members with veto power—China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States—and ten non-permanent members elected for two-year terms by the General Assembly.
    • It is headquartered in New York City.
    • Current Composition: The current composition of the Security Council has under-representation and un-representation of key regions.
    • Inability to Adress Conflicts: The current composition of the council has an inability to address critical conflicts and maintain international peace and security.
    • Changes in World Order: The world has undergone a sea change since 1945 and the new realities need to be reflected in the permanent membership. 
    • Veto Power: Currently, only the five permanent members hold veto powers and through its use have stalled action in the Council to address global challenges and conflicts such as in Ukraine and Gaza.
      • The remaining 10 nations in the Council are elected to sit as non-permanent members for two-year terms and do not have veto powers.
    • Legitimacy: The disproportionate power held by the five permanent members, particularly their veto power lead to a perception of unfairness and lack of legitimacy.
    • Global Population and Representation: India is the world’s second-most populous country, representing approximately 18% of the world’s population.
      • Such demographic significance warrants proportional representation in global decision-making bodies like the UNSC.
    • Economic Powerhouse: India has emerged as a major global economic force, ranking among the top economies by GDP (nominal) and GDP (PPP).
      • Its economic strength contributes significantly to global stability and development, which aligns with the UNSC’s mandate to maintain international peace and security.
    • Commitment to Peacekeeping: India has been one of the largest contributors to UN peacekeeping missions, demonstrating its commitment to global peace and security. 
    • Strategic Importance: India occupies a pivotal geopolitical position in South Asia and the broader Indo-Pacific region.
      • Its influence extends beyond regional boundaries, making it crucial in addressing global security challenges such as terrorism, climate change, and maritime security.
    • Democratic Values: As the world’s largest democracy, India upholds principles of pluralism, tolerance, and inclusivity, which are fundamental to the UN’s ethos. 
    • Support from Member States: India enjoys broad support from a significant number of UN member states, including influential nations from various regions.
      • This backing reflects recognition of India’s global role and its potential contributions to enhancing the UNSC’s capacity to respond to global crises.
    • Veto Power of Permanent Members: Any reforms to the composition or working methods of the UNSC require the approval of the five permanent members.
      • These countries have divergent interests and are reluctant to support changes that could diminish their influence within the Council.
    • Regional Dynamics: Regional rivalries and geopolitical tensions complicate efforts to reform the Council.
    • Complexity of the Reform Process: Amending the UN Charter to enact reforms requires a lengthy and complex process involving ratification by a significant number of member states, making it difficult to enact substantive reforms.
    • Chinese Opposition: China being a permanent member blocks the growth of India becoming a Permanent Member.
    • It is important that both the permanent and non-permanent membership be representative of the world as it is today, not the world as it existed in the wake of the Second World War.
    • Reforms in the UNSC are essential for maintaining its relevance, legitimacy, and effectiveness in addressing the complex security challenges facing the international community in the 21st century. 
    • However, achieving consensus on such reforms among the UN’s member states remains a challenging and ongoing process.

    Source: IE

    Syllabus: GS3/Biodiversity and Conservation

    • Despite international progress in the field of geo-conservation India has not formulated any mechanism for geo-conservation.
      • The Geological Survey of India (GSI) has notified 34 geological monuments, it lacks the regulatory powers to implement the preservation measures.
    • Geo-conservation refers to the efforts and practices aimed at preserving and protecting geological features, processes, and sites of scientific, cultural, educational, or aesthetic value.
      • It involves the conservation and management of geological diversity, similar to how biodiversity conservation aims to protect different species and ecosystems.
    • Rich Geological Diversity: India is geologically diverse, with a wide range of geological formations, landscapes, and mineral resources.
      • Protecting these resources ensures the preservation of unique geological features that contribute to scientific research, education, and understanding of Earth’s history.
    • Cultural and Historical Significance: Many geological sites in India hold cultural and historical significance.
      • For example, the fossil beds in the Siwalik Hills have provided important insights into India’s prehistoric past. Protecting such sites helps preserve cultural heritage and indigenous knowledge related to geology.
    • Natural Hazards Management: Understanding geological processes and landscapes is crucial for managing natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, and floods. 
    • Tourism and Recreation: India’s geological diversity attracts tourists interested in exploring unique landscapes, rock formations, caves, and mineralogical sites. 
    • Environmental Sustainability: Many geological resources, such as groundwater and minerals, are essential for sustainable development.
      • Geo-conservation promotes responsible management of these resources to ensure their availability for future generations.
    • Geo-heritage sites are educational spaces where people acquire much needed geological literacy.
    • The importance of the shared geological heritage of our planet was first recognised in 1991 at a UNESCO-sponsored event, ‘First International Symposium on the Conservation of our Geological Heritage’. 
    • Geo-heritage sites in many countries such as Canada, China, Spain, the United States and the United Kingdom have been developed as national parks. 
    • Today, there are 169 Global Geoparks across 44 countries. Thailand and Vietnam have also implemented laws to conserve their geological and natural heritage. 
    • Though a signatory, India has no such legislation or policy for geo-heritage conservation.
    • In 2009, there was a attempt to constitute a National Commission for Heritage Sites through a Bill introduced in the Rajya Sabha.
      • Though it was eventually referred to the Standing Committee, the government backtracked on it for some unstated reasons and the Bill was withdrawn. 
      • The Bill was meant to constitute a national commission to implement the stipulations of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention 1972 and to create a national roster of heritage sites. 
    • More recently, in 2022, the Ministry of Mines has prepared a draft Bill for preservation and maintenance, but no further progress on this has been heard. 
    • India needs the following at the earliest:
      • create an inventory of all prospective geo-sites in the country (in addition to the 34 sites identified by the GSI); 
      • frame geo-conservation legislation for the country along the lines of the Biological Diversity Act 2002; 
      • and, have a ‘National Geo-Conservation Authority’ along the lines of the National Biodiversity Authority, with independent observers, ensuring that the establishment will not encroach on the autonomy of researchers.
    • By conserving geological sites and resources, India can better manage its natural environment and contribute to global efforts towards environmental sustainability.

    Source: TH

    Syllabus :GS 3/Science and Technology 

    • In the last decade, India’s use of genomics has undergone a significant transformation
    • Efforts are underway to create new datasets to address individual health problems, ranging from the age-old scourge of tuberculosis to cancers, rare genetic disorders in children, and even antimicrobial resistance.
    •  Researchers have also been able to extract more value from these using artificial intelligence and machine learning, and by combining their contents with other extensive datasets on proteins (proteomics), gene expression in cells (transcriptomics), and chemical changes that regulate gene expression (epigenomics) to develop a ‘multi-omics’ approach to tackle diseases.
    • Tuberculosis : The Indian Tuberculosis Genomic Surveillance Consortium (InTGS) comprises 10 Report India sites covering eight states for tuberculosis, with the goal of sequencing around 32,000 tuberculosis clinical strains from active patients, and develop a centralised biological repository of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in India.
      • Goals include mapping genetic diversity, correlating mutations with drug resistance, and optimising treatment outcomes.
    • Rare genetic disorders : India has also launched a pan-country mission for Paediatric Rare Genetic Disorders (PRaGeD)
    • Mission PRaGeD is planning to create awareness, perform genetic diagnosis, discover and characterise new genes or variants, provide counselling, and develop new therapies for rare genetic diseases that afflict India’s children.
    • Focuses on genetic diagnosis, new gene discovery, and therapy development for pediatric rare genetic diseases.
    • Integrates data from IndiGen to enhance genetic analysis and management.
    • Cancers: The Indian Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC-India), part of the larger International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) and supported by the Department of Biotechnology, plans to characterise genomic abnormalities in different types of cancers in Indian patients and identify population-specific genetic variations that are linked to cancer risk and treatment response.
      • Aims to identify biomarkers, treatment targets, and personalize treatment strategies through population-wide genome sequencing.
      • The Indian Cancer Genome Atlas project, a not-for-profit public-private-philanthropic initiative, is trying to create a comprehensive catalogue of genomic alterations across various cancer types prevalent in India. 
    • Antimicrobial Resistance: Genomics and metagenomics used to analyze antimicrobial resistance, particularly in slow-growing microbes like tuberculosis.
      • Facilitates targeted antibiotic therapies by identifying resistance profiles without the need for lab culturing.
    Other Developments 

    – In January 2024, the Department of Biotechnology completed sequencing 10,000 genomes from 99 ethnic groups under its ‘Genome India’ project
    A. This national initiative aims to develop a reference genome for Indian people, which will help design genome-wide and disease-specific ‘genetic chips’ for low-cost diagnostics and research.

    – In October 2020, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) had reportedly sequenced the entire genomes of 1,008 individuals in India representing diverse ethnic groups in six months. 
    A. This effort was part of a mission called ‘IndiGen’ — to create a pilot dataset with which researchers could analyse the epidemiology of genetic diseases and help develop affordable screening approaches, optimise treatment, and minimise adverse events for them.
    • AI and ML algorithms assist in analysing extensive genomic datasets for predicting disease risks, early cancer detection, and treatment stratification.
    • Multi-omics approach integrates genomics with proteomics, transcriptomics, and epigenomics to enhance disease understanding and therapeutic development.
    • With the rapid expansion of AI, it is now easy to access multi-omics and analyse Big Data products rapidly, even with only standard computational facilities  and multi-omics is today an emerging technology in the field of clinical science in India.

    Source:TH

    Syllabus: GS3/ Infrastructure and Energy

    • India’s installed Rooftop solar (RTS) capacity increased by 2.99 GW in 2023-2024, the highest growth reported in a year. 
    • In 2015, India targeted 100 GW by 2022, including a 40 GW RTS component. 
    • In December 2022, India achieved an installed RTS capacity of about 7.5 GW. It extended the deadline for the 40 GW target to 2026.
    • As per the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, as of March 2024, the total installed Rooftop solar (RTS) capacity in India was 11.87 GW.
    • The overall RTS potential of India is approximately 796 GW. The full RTS potential of several States is yet to be fully tapped. 
    • Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission:  It was the first major initiative by the Indian government to promote the growth of solar energy.
      • The main objective was to produce 20 GW of solar energy (including RTS) in three phases: 2010-2013, 2013-2017, and 2017-2022.
    • Over the years, improvements to the RTS installation numbers have been driven by favorable initiatives like;
      • Sustainable Partnership for RTS Acceleration in Bharat, SUPRABHA, 
      • Sustainable Rooftop Implementation for Solar Transfiguration of India, (SRISTI) schemes and
      • Financial incentives, technological advances, awareness campaigns, and training programmes.
    • Pradhan Mantri Surya Ghar: Muft Bijli Yojana: It is a flagship initiative to fit 1 crore households with RTS systems and help them get up to 300 units of free electricity every month.
      • The scheme includes Central financial assistance for consumers , incentives for distribution companies and local bodies, and model solar villages in each district etc.
    • In Gujarat there is an installed RTS capacity of 3,456 MW with a large number of RTS installers, and high consumer awareness.
      • Modhera, India’s first solar-powered village, is in Gujarat and has 1,300 RTS systems of 1 kW each.
    • Maharashtra, with an RTS capacity of 2,072 MW, is one of the top performing states owing to its robust solar policies and conducive regulatory environment.
    • Rajasthan, the largest state by land area, has RTS capacity of 1,154 MW. 
    • Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka, with respective installed capacities of 675, 599, and 594 MW, have also performed reasonably well.
    • However, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Jharkhand are yet to fully explore their RTS potential.
      • The challenges here include bureaucratic hurdles, inadequate infrastructure, and lack of public awareness.
    • Grassroots-level awareness campaigns led by distribution companies and local bodies, along with door-to-door RTS promotion campaigns, are required to cover the nation. 
    • RTS needs to be economically viable for households. While government subsidies are helping lower the total cost for households, multiple low-cost financing options are required.
    • Promoting research and development in solar technology, energy storage solutions, and smart-grid infrastructure can drive down costs, improve performance, and enhance the reliability of RTS systems.  
    • Investments in training programmes, vocational courses, and skill development initiatives will help build a skilled workforce.
      • Under the ‘Suryamitra’ (solar PV technician) training programme initiated in 2015, more than 51,000 technicians had been trained as of December 2022. 
    • For the implementation of the ‘Muft Bijli Yojana’ successfully , RTS policies including net-metering regulations, grid-integration standards, and building codes should be reviewed and updated.
      • The virtual net-metering and group net-metering options need to be fast-tracked for consumers with inadequate roof space for RTS installations.
    • Rooftop solar (RTS) has the potential to revolutionize India’s energy landscape, offering a sustainable, decentralized, and affordable solution to meet the country’s growing electricity needs and making consumers self-reliant. 
    • To meet India’s ambitious target of installing 500 GW of renewable energy capacity (with a solar component of 280 GW) by 2030 and its larger net-zero goals by 2070, RTS alone needs to contribute about 100 GW by 2030.

    Source: TH

    Syllabus :GS 3/Environment 

    • In recent years, there is  increasing recognition of biomass briquettes as a viable alternative to conventional fuels.
    • These compact blocks of organic materials, such as agricultural residues, forestry wastes, or industrial by-products
    • Global Market: Global biomass briquette market valued at USD 429.0 million in 2022, projected to reach USD 721.2 million by 2033.
    • Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.8% reflects growing recognition as a sustainable fuel alternative.
    • Resource in India: India’s biomass potential is estimated at 750 million tonnes annually, mainly agricultural residues, offering a golden opportunity to harness biomass briquettes on a large scale to meet energy needs sustainably.
    • Environmental: Carbon-neutral fuel source, releasing no additional CO2 when burned, aiding in climate change mitigation.
      • Utilises agricultural and forestry residues, reducing methane emissions from decomposition.
      • Enhances waste management and carbon sequestration efforts.
    • Economic Empowerment: Creates employment in rural areas through biomass briquette production.
    • Reduces dependence on costly imported fuels, enhancing energy security and economic resilience.
    • Supply Chain Resilience: Less vulnerable to price volatility and geopolitical uncertainties compared to fossil fuels.
    • Local availability of feedstock reduces exposure to external shocks.
    • Scalability and Adaptability: Modular production units allow flexibility to adjust to varying demand levels.

    Source:FE

    Syllabus: GS2/ Governance

    In News

    • Ladakh has achieved full functional literacy under the ULLAS-Nav Bharat Saaksharta Karyakram (ULLAS-NILP).

    About ULLAS

    • It is a centrally sponsored scheme, launched by the Ministry of Education that aims to cover all aspects of Education for All.
    • It targets non-literates aged 15 and above, running from FY 2022-23 to 2026-27. ULLAS-NILP comprises five components: Foundational Literacy and Numeracy, Critical Life Skills, Basic Education, Vocational Skills, and Continuing Education. Its implementation is facilitated through volunteerism and online mode.

    Source: PIB

    Syllabus: GS3/ Economy

    In Context

    • Dodol, a rich, caramel-like dessert from Goa, is being considered for a Geographical Indication (GI) tag by the state government to standardize its recipe and preserve its cultural identity.

    About GI Tag

    • A Geographical Indication (GI) is a label used on products that come from a specific place, highlighting qualities or reputation linked to that location. Internationally, GI is recognized as part of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) under agreements like the WTO’s TRIPS Agreement, Paris Convention, Madrid Agreement, and Lisbon Agreement.
    • In India, GI registration is managed by the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act of 1999
    • It is overseen by the Registrar of Geographical Indications (RGI) and applies to agricultural, natural, or manufactured goods. This registration provides legal protection for 10 years, which can be renewed.
    • The Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade, part of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, handles GI registration. This ensures protection against unauthorized use and helps promote exports.

    Source: IE

    Syllabus: GS2/Indian Polity

    Context

    • Recently, the President of India addressed the Joint Sitting Of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha in Parliament.

    About

    • The President’s Address to the Joint Session of Parliament is a significant event in India’s democratic process.
    • It marks the beginning of the Parliamentary Session and outlines the Government’s Policies,  Legislative Agenda, Achievements, and Future Plans.
    Historical Background

    – In the United Kingdom, the tradition of the monarch addressing the Parliament began in the 16th century. 
    – In the United States, President Gorge Washington addressed Congress for the first time in 1790.

    Evolution in India
    – In India, the practice of the President addressing Parliament was established after the promulgation of the Government of India Act in 1919.
    – Between 1947 and 1950, there was no address to the Constituent Assembly (Legislative).
    – After the Constitution of India came into force, President Rajendra Prasad addressed members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha for the first time on January 31, 1950. 

    Constitutional Provisions

    • The Constitution of India gives the President and the Governor the power to address a sitting of the legislature. 
    • Article 87 provides two instances when the President specially addresses both Houses of Parliament. 
    • The President of India addresses both the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha at the beginning of the first Session after each general election when the reconstituted lower house meets for the first time.
    • The President also addresses both the houses at the beginning of the first session of each year.
    • Procedure and Tradition: There is no set format for the President’s or Governor’s speech. The Constitution of India states that the President shall ‘inform Parliament of the cause of the summons’. 
    • The President’s speech essentially highlights the government’s policy priorities and plans for the upcoming year, and provides a broad framework of the government’s agenda and direction.
    • After the President’s address, the two Houses move a ‘Motion to Thank’ the President for her speech.

    Source: News On AIR

    Syllabus: GS2/Polity

    Context

    • After 22 years, there is a real chance that the phenomena of cohabitation can be seen in the Polity of France.

    About

    • After two rounds of polling, France will elect a new National Assembly. 
    • For the first time in 22 years, there is a real possibility that the President and the Prime Minister, leader of the National Assembly, will not be from the same party.
    • In the cohabitation system, the French legislature is dominated by a coalition/party opposing the President. 
      • In such instances, the President is obliged to appoint a leader from the opposing party as Prime Minister, who enjoys the support of a parliamentary majority.
    • Cohabitation has only occurred thrice ever since France transitioned into the Fifth Republic.
    • Fifth Republic: The current political regime, called the Fifth Republic, first came into effect in 1958, replacing the former parliamentary republic system.
      • The French President has been directly elected by popular vote, while the Prime Minister is the leader of the largest party/coalition in the National Assembly.

    Source: IE

    Syllabus: GS2/International Relations

    Context

    • Paraguay has become the 100th member of the International Solar Alliance.

    About

    • India and France jointly launched the International Solar Alliance (ISA) during 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held in Paris in 2015.
    • The ISA aims to contribute to the implementation of the Paris Climate Agreement through the rapid and massive deployment of solar energy.
    • Members: At present, 119 countries are signatories to the ISA Framework Agreement, of which 100 countries have submitted the necessary instruments of ratification to become full members of the ISA.
      • Spain has joined as the 99th member of the International Solar Alliance.

    Source: AIR

    Syllabus: GS2/Polity

    Context

    • Lok Sabha Speaker Om Birla read out a resolution condemning the imposition of Emergency in 1975.

    Emergency Provisions

    • Part XVIII of the Constitution speaks of emergency provisions. 
    • The emergency provisions can be classified into three categories:
      • Articles 352, 353, 354, 358 and 359 which relate to National emergency on the grounds of a threat to the security of India, either due to war, external aggression, or armed rebellion.
      • Articles 355, 356 and 357 deal with imposition of President’s rule in States on the grounds of failure of the constitutional machinery in a state, leading to the breakdown of law and order, 
      • Article 360 which speaks of financial emergency.
    • India has witnessed three instances where a national emergency was declared under Article 352 of the Constitution.
      • First National Emergency (1962): This was declared during the Indo-China war.
      • Second National Emergency (1971): Declared during the Indo-Pakistan war that led to the liberation of Bangladesh.
      • Third National Emergency (1975-1977): It was declared by then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and lasted for 21 months. It was primarily declared on grounds of internal disturbance.
    • Apart from national emergencies, there have been numerous instances where President’s rule has been imposed in various states. 
    • Financial emergency under Article 360 has never been declared in India.

    Source: TH

    Syllabus: GS3/Economy

    Context

    • Indian coffee exporters are witnessing a surge in demand from European buyers as they build up inventory ahead of the deadline for compliance with the proposed European Union Deforestation Regulation (EUDR) norms.
    European Union Deforestation Regulation (EUDR)

    – It aims to minimise the importation of products linked to deforestation and requires strict due diligence and traceability measures for commodities such as coffee.
    – It applies to a wide range of products, including cattle, cocoa, coffee, oil palm, rubber, soya, and wood etc.

    About

    • India’s coffee exports for the January 1-June 21 period in 2024 have risen by 16% compared to the same period last year, reaching over 2.37 lakh tonnes.
    • India, the seventh-largest coffee producer globally, ranks fifth in coffee exports after Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia, and Indonesia.
    • Italy, Germany, and Belgium are major buyers of Indian coffee, with more than two-thirds of India-grown coffees destined for Europe.
    • Indian coffee exporters are adapting to meet the demand and maintain their position in the international market, as Europe braces for stricter norms.
    • The EUDR’s impact on the coffee industry underscores the growing importance of sustainable practices and environmental responsibility in global trade.

    About the Coffee Production in India

    • Production: India is among the top 10 coffee-producing countries, with about 3% of the global output in 2020. 
    • Types:Arabica and Robusta.
      • Arabica has higher market value than Robusta coffee due to its mild aromatic flavour.
      • Robusta is the majorly manufactured coffee with a share of 72% of the total production.

    Agro-Climatic Conditions for Coffee Production in India

    FactorsArabicaRobusta
    SoilsDeep, fertile, rich in organic matter, well drained and slightly acidic (Ph 6.0 – 6.5)Same as Arabica
    SlopesGentle to moderate slopesGentle slopes to fairly level fields
    Elevation1000 – 1500 m500 – 1000 m
    Temperature15°C – 25°C ; cool, equable20°C – 30°C; hot, humid
    Relative Humidity70-80%80-90%
    Annual Rainfall1600-2500 mm1000-2000 mm
    • Major Producers: South Indian states like Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu contribute 80% of the country’s total coffee production.
      • Orissa and the northeastern areas also have a smaller proportion of production.
    Coffee Board of India

    – It was established through Coffee Act VII of 1942.
    – Administrative Control: The Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
    – Headquarter: Bangalore, Karnataka
    – The Board has a Market Intelligence Unit (MIU) functioning from its head office at Bangalore.
    A. It undertakes various activities related to market information & intelligence, market research studies, crop forecasting and coffee economics aspects.

    Role of the Board

    – enhancement of production, productivity & quality; 
    – export promotion for achieving higher value returns for Indian Coffee and
    – supporting the development of Domestic market.

    Source: TH

    Syllabus: GS3/ Defence

    In News

    • The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) handed over the Medium Range-Microwave Obscurant Chaff Rocket (MR-MOCR) to the Indian Navy.

    About

    • Microwave Obscurant Chaff (MOC) is a niche technology developed by DRDO’s Defence Laboratory in Jodhpur, obscures radar signals and creates a microwave shield around platforms and assets, thus reducing radar detection.
    • The rocket, when fired, forms a microwave obscurant cloud in space spreading over a sufficient area, with adequate persistence time, creating an effective shield against hostile threats having radio frequency seekers.

    Source: AIR

    Syllabus: GS3/ Defence

    In News

    • The Indian Air Force’s (IAF) Rafale fighter jets are currently in Egypt for Ex- HOPEX. Earlier, IAF concluded the ‘Red Flag’ exercise ay Alaska. 

    About

    • Exercise HOPEX is a joint military exercise between the Indian Air Force (IAF) and Egyptian Air Force. 
    • The aim of this exercise is to promote bilateral and regional cooperation, which is a symbol of the long-standing relations between the two countries.
    • The C-17 Globemaster and IL-78 tankers are participating in the exercise. The location of the exercise is Egypt.

    Source: FE

    Syllabus :GS 1/Places in news 

    In News

     Kenya’s President rejected a tax bill that prompted deadly protests.

    About Kenya

    • The Republic of Kenya is a country in Eastern Africa. 

    • It lies on the equator and is bordered by Ethiopia to the north, Somalia to the east, Tanzania to the south, Uganda to the west, and Sudan to the northwest, with the Indian Ocean running along the southeast border.
    • The country is named after Mount Kenya, a very significant landmark.

    •  Nairobi : the national capital city 
    •  Kenya boasts of big rivers such as Tana and Athi which drain into the Indian Ocean.
    • Lake Victoria, one of the largest freshwater lakes in the world which is shared by Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. 
    • Lake Turkana is the largest permanent desert lake in the world  and it  is the largest alkaline lake in the world