Daily Current Affairs 26-06-2024


    Syllabus: GS 1/Social Issues 

    In News

    • National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) issued  notice to Odisha govt on custodial death row .

    What is Custodial Death?

    • It is the demise of an individual while in the custody of law enforcement or judicial authorities.
    • It often occur under suspicious circumstances
    • According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) 2022 report, Gujarat has consistently recorded the highest number of custodial deaths for three consecutive years.
      •  In 2022, 14 people died in police custody in Gujarat, while Rajasthan and Punjab followed with three deaths each. 

    Factors contribute to Custodial Deaths

    • Excessive use of force: Many deaths are attributed to torture or excessive use of force during interrogation or while in police custody. 
    • Negligence: Inadequate access to medical care and delays in providing timely treatment to detainees exacerbate health conditions, leading to preventable deaths.
    • Lack of Accountability: Despite legal safeguards and guidelines, accountability for custodial deaths remains a significant challenge.
      •  Investigations are often delayed, compromised, or lack transparency, shielding perpetrators from justice.
    • Overcrowding: Inadequate infrastructure in prisons and detention centers contributes to health risks and exacerbates pre-existing medical conditions among detainees.
    • legal safeguards  implementation remains inconsistent, leaving room for abuse and impunity.


    •  Custodial  deaths not only deprive individuals of their fundamental right to life but also erode public trust in law enforcement institutions.
    • It  raises profound concerns about the abuse of power, the lack of accountability, and the systemic flaws within the country’s criminal justice system.
    • Custodial deaths represent a profound failure of justice and human rights in India.

    Legal Framework 

    • The Constitution of India guarantees the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21
    • The National Human Rights Commission  in 1993 had issued a general circular requiring all the District Magistrates and the Superintendents of Police to report to the Commission, incidents relating to custodial deaths and rapes within 24 hours of their occurrence.
    • In cases of custodial rape and death, the Code of Criminal Procedure also requires compulsory judicial magisterial inquiry in place of an executive magistrate inquiry. 
    • The judiciary has emphasized the need for accountability and compensation in cases of custodial deaths through landmark judgments such as DK Basu vs. State of West Bengal.
    • The Model Prison Manual of 2016 and the Mental Healthcare Act of 2017, outline inmates’ right to healthcare, which includes adequate investment in healthcare facilities, setting up mental health units, training officers to provide basic and emergency care, and formulating suicide prevention programmes to thwart such instances 

    Suggestions and Way Forward

    • There is a need for better training, accountability mechanisms, and stricter adherence to human rights standards within law enforcement agencies.
    • Pushing for effective implementation of guidelines laid down by the Supreme Court to prevent custodial violence and ensure prompt investigations.
    • Raising awareness about human rights and the consequences of custodial violence.
    • As India strives to strengthen its democratic institutions and uphold the rights of all its citizens, addressing custodial deaths must remain a critical priority to achieve a more just and humane society.


    Syllabus: GS3/ Internal security


    • The United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres unveiled the Global Principles for Information Integrity, a comprehensive framework aimed at addressing the threats posed by misinformation, and hate speech.

    What is Hate Speech?

    • Hate speech is defined as any speech, gesture, conduct, writing, or display that may incite violence or prejudicial action against or by any individual or group, or because it disparages or intimidates a particular individual or group.

    Impact of Hate Speech

    • It undermines social equality as it reaffirms historical marginalization, oppression & discrimination.
    • It is enacted to cause psychological and physical harm to its victims as it incites violence.
    • It is used to provoke individuals or society to commit acts of terrorism, genocides, ethnic cleansing etc.
    • It is a tool to create panic through rumour mongering against targeted people. For example, the Northeast exodus.

    Comprehensive recommendations

    • Combating disinformation and hate speech: All stakeholders, including governments, tech companies, advertisers, and media, should avoid using, supporting, or amplifying disinformation and hate speech for any purpose.
    • Promoting media freedom: Governments should ensure timely access to information, maintain a free, viable, independent, and plural media landscape, and provide strong protections for journalists, researchers, and civil society.
    • Enhancing tech company responsibilities: Technology companies should incorporate safety and privacy by design in all products, apply policies consistently across countries and languages, and give particular attention to groups often targeted online. 
    • Ethical AI development: AI developers must take immediate, inclusive, and transparent measures to ensure AI applications are designed, deployed, and used ethically and safely, upholding human rights.
    • Reforming business models: Tech companies should explore business models that do not rely on programmatic advertising and prioritize human rights, privacy, and safety. Users should have greater control over their online experiences and personal data.
    • Transparency in advertising: Advertisers should demand transparency in digital advertising processes to ensure their budgets do not inadvertently fund disinformation or hate and do not undermine human rights.
    • Data transparency and accountability: Tech companies and AI developers should ensure meaningful transparency, allow researchers and academics access to data while respecting user privacy, commission independent audits, and co-develop accountability frameworks.
    • Protecting children: Special measures should be taken to protect and empower children, with governments providing resources for parents, guardians, and educators.

    Laws and regulations on hate speech in India

    • Indian Penal Code (IPC), 1860: It contains provisions that prohibit hate speech, such as :
      • Section 153A: It deals with actions promoting enmity between different groups on grounds of religion, race, place of birth, residence, language, etc., and doing acts prejudicial to maintenance of harmony. 
      • Section 295A: It deals with deliberate and malicious acts, intended to outrage religious feelings of any class by insulting its religion or religious beliefs.
      • Section 505: It pertains to statements creating or promoting enmity, hatred or ill-will between classes)
    • Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC), 1973: It provides for the arrest of individuals who have committed a cognizable offense, such as hate speech.
    • Indian Information Technology (IT) Act, 2000: It regulates online speech, including hate speech. Under the act, intermediaries such as social media platforms are required to remove content that is in violation of the law within 36 hours of being notified.

    Court Judgements

    • Shreya Singhal v. Union of India (2015): The court struck down Section 66A of the IT Act, which had criminalized online speech, stating that it violated the right to freedom of speech and expression.
    • Sukumar v. State of Tamil Nadu (2019): The court held that hate speech on social media platforms is not protected by the right to freedom of speech and expression.

    Concluding remark

    • The launch of the Global Principles for Information Integrity marks a critical step towards addressing the complex challenges posed by the digital information landscape, advocating for a united and principled approach to safeguarding human rights and maintaining the integrity of information worldwide.

    Source: DTE

    Syllabus: GS3/Disaster Management


    • Recently, Delhi faced record-breaking electricity demand due to relentless high temperatures, leading to frequent power cuts and exacerbating heat-related potential deaths. Ensuring resilient critical infrastructure against extreme events is vital for climate change adaptation.

    What is Disaster Resilient Infrastructure?

    • Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (DRI) refers to the design and construction of infrastructure systems that can withstand, adapt to, and rapidly recover from disasters. 
    • This resilience ensures uninterrupted essential services even during calamities. 
    • As urbanization and national growth accelerate, infrastructure, such as power, water, and transportation become ever more crucial.

    Need for the DRI

    • Disasters exacerbated by climate change are diminishing infrastructure investments across the world. 
      • Flash floods in megacities like New York and Seoul claimed many lives and crippled urban infrastructure systems.
      • Earthquakes in Morocco and Turkey were not only devastating for infrastructure but as well as lives and livelihoods. 
      • A cloudburst led to glacial lake overflow in Sikkim claiming many lives causing a great amount of damage to the critical infrastructure including roads connecting the mountain state with the rest of India. 
    • Resilience during Disasters: These consecutive disaster events serve as a stark reminder of the critical importance of designing and investing in infrastructure that is resilient during unpredictable disasters. 
    • Future Outlook: It is now estimated that by 2030, without substantial investments in fortifying cities globally against potential threats, natural disasters could inflict an annual financial burden of approximately US$314 billion on cities.
      • A 2022 World Bank report projected that the decline in productivity due to heat-related stress could take away around 34 million jobs in India by 2030. 
      • Therefore, transitioning to DRI and flexible urban strategies is essential for improving the quality of life for people. 
    • With the mounting threats of climate change intensifying natural disasters, the shift towards DRI isn’t just strategic—it’s vital for economic stability and human well-being.

    Pathways to Make Infrastructure Disaster Resilient 

    • At the core of DRI is an understanding of evolving risks, like shifting cyclonic patterns due to global warming.
      • This knowledge helps setting up appropriate building codes and design standards, crucial components that pave the way for integrated resilience across diverse sectors. 
    • Tailored infrastructure design, such as those responsive to flood risks or preparatory activities like pre-monsoon drain cleaning, solidifies a system’s disaster resilience. 
    • Regular infrastructure risk assessments are pivotal to find vulnerabilities in critical sectors like transport, power, and telecommunications.
      • These assessments, bolstered by risk mitigation strategies, protect against potential damages.
    • Localized evaluations in cities and towns further contribute essential data for holistic planning.


    • India is still in the process of developing its infrastructure. Most of the infrastructure that has been proposed to stand in India by 2030 is still to be built.
      • It is much easier, and cost-effective, to incorporate disaster resilience at the time of building than to retrofit these features at a later stage. 
    • Building a disaster-resilient infrastructure is a complex task, requiring a blend of strategic planning, innovation, finance, and most importantly, a collective approach. 
    • Nations need to champion these components, ensuring they are not only prepared for future calamities but also poised for sustainable growth. 

    Source: IE

    Syllabus: GS1/Geography


    • After the deficient monsoon last year, the Maharashtra government declared many parts of the state to be drought-hit earlier this year.
      • Even when wells and reservoirs run dry in Marathwada, Maharashtra’s coastal areas experience severe flooding.


    • Much of the Marathwada region received less than 75% of its average rainfall. 
    • This situation is in sharp contrast with the State’s coastal areas, where rainfall has often been in excess, leading to severe flooding.
    • This diversity is why climate adaptation measures have been challenging to formulate and implement. 

    Reasons for Drought in Many Parts of Maharashtra

    • Rain-shadow Region: Marathwada lies in the rain-shadow region of the Western Ghats.
      • When moist winds from the Arabian Sea encounter these mountains, they rise and cool, causing heavy rainfall on the western side. 
      • But by the time these winds cross the Ghats and descend into Western Maharashtra and Marathwada, they lose most of their moisture, leaving Marathwada relatively much drier.
    • Climate Change: Due to Climate Change, the region has experienced an increasing trend in drought severity and frequency of late.
      • As a result, Marathwada and North Karnataka have emerged as the second driest regions in India after the country’s northwest region.
    • Type of Soil: The region has predominantly clayey black soil, locally called “regur”. This soil is fertile and retains moisture well.
      • However, it has a low infiltration rate, meaning that when it does rain, the water is either logged or runs off rather, but doesn’t percolate down to recharge groundwater.
    • Topographic Variation: The area has parallel tributaries of the Godavari and the Krishna flowing southeast.
      • Each tributary flows in the valley and is separated by a gently sloping hill. The valleys have perennial groundwater while the uplands have seasonal groundwater. 
      • The wells in upland areas often dry up a few months after the monsoons — and this is where the water scarcity is most acute.
    • Promotion of Water Intensive Crop: Long-standing government support for sugarcane pricing and sales has expanded water-intensive sugarcane irrigation, which has restricted the irrigation of more nutritious crops.
      • For every one acre of sugarcane, for example, four acres of traditional crops are deprived of water. 


    • Sugarcane Cultivation: The agricultural practices of Marathwada are not well suited to its low-rainfall regime.
      • A major contributor to the region’s water crisis is sugarcane cultivation. 
      • Sugarcane requires about 1,500-2,500 mm of water in its growing season — outstripping what natural rainfall in the region can provide. 
      • While pulses and millets require four or five irrigations across the crop life, sugarcane needs to be irrigated almost every day.
    • Increase in Area under Sugarcane Cultivation: The area under sugarcane along with the number of sugarcane mills increased steadily between the 1950s and the 2000s.
      • The crop currently occupies 4% of the total cropped area in the region but consumes 61% of the irrigation water. As a result, the average river outflow in the upper Bhima basin has almost halved.
      • 82% of the sugar grown in Maharashtra comes from low-rainfall areas.


    • To ensure source sustainability of the drinking water sources in the region,  the State government should consider pumping the water uphill and improving surface water storage for drinking. 
    • Funds under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme could be used to address specific challenges, such as designing silt-trapping mechanisms and organising training programmes for farmers on periodic desilting.
    • The Maharashtra Water and Irrigation Commission in 1999 recommended that sugarcane should be banned in areas that receive less than 1,000 mm of rainfall per year, but production has only increased.
      • Sugarcane production — both for food and for ethanol — must move to wetter states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal, which receive more rainfall.
    • In a low-rainfall region, water demand can be managed by practising water-efficient irrigation, cultivating drought-resistant crops, and diversifying livelihoods.


    • Marathwada’s water crisis is a stark reminder of a delicate balance between agricultural practices and environmental sustainability. 
    • By adopting more sustainable policies and agricultural practices, drought-prone regions in peninsular India can mitigate their water crisis and build a more resilient future in the face of climate change.

    Source: TH 

    Syllabus: GS2/International Relations


    • Recently, India and Russia concluded the Reciprocal Exchange of Logistics Agreement (RELOS) aiming to bolster military cooperation.

    About the Reciprocal Exchange of Logistics Agreement (RELOS)

    • It is a bilateral administrative agreement to provide logistical support that facilitates access to each other’s military facilities, in exchange of fuel and other provisions.
    • Among the three services, the Indian Navy has been the biggest beneficiary of these administrative arrangements signed with several countries, improving its operational turnaround and increasing interoperability on the high seas.
      • The agreements have been a win-win for both the parties involved.
    • By signing the RELOS, India and Russia are scaling up their military-to-military cooperation for real-time combat situations.

    Significance of Agreement

    • A logistics pact facilitates mutual logistical support during various military operations, training, port calls, including peacekeeping missions, Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR), and joint military exercises.
      • It involves critical services like refuelling, maintenance, and supply provisions, enhancing interoperability.
      • It enhances access to Russian military facilities, especially in the Arctic region.
    India’s Strategic Reach (Logistics Agreements with Different Countries)

    – India has similar logistics agreements with the United States, France, South Korea, Singapore, Australia, Vietnam, and Japan.
    – These pacts enhance India’s strategic reach and operational readiness, ensuring that its military can sustain longer and more complex deployments.

    Quad Countries

    India-United States Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) (2016): It provides access to each other’s facilities for supplies and repairs, bolstering defence cooperation between India and the US.
    India–Japan Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) and India–Australia Mutual Logistics Support Agreement (MLSA), demonstrating all the Quad Countries. 


    India-Vietnam Mutual Logistics Agreement (2022): It aims to strengthen military logistics support and expand defence ties between India and Vietnam.
    – Apart from this, India maintains such military logistics agreements with France, Singapore and South Korea.

    India’s Effort

    National Logistics Policy (NLP) (2022)
    Aim: Lower logistics costs (currently around 13-14% of GDP) to global benchmarks (around 8%) by 2030.
    Impact: Boosts economic growth, competitiveness, and efficiency across sectors by streamlining logistics.

    India’s Trade Agreements
    – India has signed 13 Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) and 6 Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) with various trading partners, including Mauritius, UAE, and Australia.

    Source: TH

    Syllabus: GS2/International Organisation


    • Recently, the International Hydrographic Organisation (IHO) celebrated ‘World Hydrography Day’ to raise awareness about hydrography.

    About the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO)

    • It (founded in 1921) is an intergovernmental organisation that plays a crucial role in ensuring the safety of navigation and the protection of the marine environment.
    • Its primary aim is to ensure that all the world’s seas, oceans, and navigable waters are accurately surveyed and charted.

    Functions and Activities

    • Survey Best Practices: The IHO issues guidelines and best practices for hydrographic surveys, ensuring high-quality data collection.
      • It coordinates the activities of national hydrographic offices worldwide, and deliver standards for hydrographic data and product specifications;
    • Nautical Charts: It sets standards for nautical charts, essential for safe navigation.
    • Hydrographic Information: The IHO maximises the use of hydrographic information, benefiting mariners, researchers, and environmentalists.
      • It develops guidelines for data assurance, including cybersecurity and data quality assessment.
      • It promotes ocean sustainability by reaching out to non-navigation users of hydrographic data.
    • Capacity Building: The organisation supports capacity building in member states, fostering expertise in hydrography.
      • It motivates collaboration among international organisations, academia, and industry for standardised maritime data products.

    India and IHO

    • The Indian Naval Hydrographic Office (INHD) plays a crucial role in hydrography and navigational safety, and functions under the Indian Navy as the nodal agency for Hydrographic surveys and nautical charting in India.
      • India has been an active member of the IHO since 1955.

    Role of INHD

    • INHD is a world-class Hydrographic Office with seven ocean-going survey ships and well-trained personnel.
    • It provides hydrographic products and services in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR).
    • INHD actively supports coastal states in the IOR through hydrographic surveys, capacity building, and nautical charting.
    • India fully supports the IHO’s work program, focusing on global chart standards, strategic planning, emerging technologies, and safety services.

    – It deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defence, scientific research, and environmental protection.

    – It involves the scientific study and mapping of marine environments, including coastlines, depths, tides, currents, and underwater features, and underpins almost every other activity associated with the sea.

    World Hydrography Day

    – It is celebrated on 21 June each year to raise awareness about hydrography and its crucial role in improving our knowledge of the seas and oceans.
    – It was established by the IHO in 2006.
    Theme for 2024: ‘Hydrographic Information – Enhancing Safety, Efficiency, and Sustainability in Marine Activities’.
    a. It reflects the ongoing transformation in navigation, including e-navigation, autonomous shipping, and emission reduction.

    Source: PIB

    Syllabus: GS3/ Economy

    In News

    • A recent allegation against a mutual fund indulging in front running, indicating that this illegal practice remains a concern in the financial markets.

    About front running

    • It is the illegal practice of using non-public information to trade in securities (buy or sell) or derivatives (options or futures) before a substantial order is placed. This gives the front-runner an unfair advantage as they can profit from the expected price movement caused by the large order.
    • In 2022, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) amended the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Mutual Funds) Regulations, 1996 to include provisions specifically aimed at curbing front running.

    Why is Front Running Illegal?

    • It undermines investor confidence in the fairness and integrity of financial markets.
    • It creates an uneven playing field, favoring those with access to privileged information over regular investors.

    Source: TH

    Syllabus: GS3/Infrastructure


    • A five-member Pakistan delegation and neutral experts of the World Bank toured the Ratle power project.


    • It is a run-of-the-river hydroelectric power project on the River Chenab in Jammu and Kashmir.
    • Pakistan has been raising technical objections in different forums since 2006 regarding power projects in Jammu and Kashmir.
      • Pakistan demanded an arbitration by different international forums, which was rejected by India.
    • India has the right over the run-of-the-river water under the Indus Water Treaty over the three rivers flowing through J&K and complete rights over the waters flowing through the three rivers in Punjab.
      • India has been maintaining that it abides by the IWT.

    Indus Waters Treaty

    • It was signed in 1960 after nine years of negotiations between India and Pakistan with the help of the World Bank, which is also a signatory.
    • The Treaty allocates the Western Rivers (Indus, Jhelum, Chenab) to Pakistan and the Eastern Rivers (Ravi, Beas, Sutlej) to India.
    • At the same time, the Treaty allows each country certain uses on the rivers allocated to the respective other country.

    Source: TH

    Syllabus: GS3/ Species in News

    In News

    • Kerala faces a growing wild boar menace, with the animals destroying crops, attacking farmers, and causing road accidents. 

    Problem caused by Wild Boars

    • This poses a significant threat to the state’s food security and agricultural sector.
    • The man-animal conflict has claimed 990 lives and injured 7,500 people since 2016. The state government provides financial assistance.

    About Wild Boars

    • Scientific Name : S. scrofa
    • It has by far the largest range of all pigs. 
    • It  is sometimes called the European wild boar.
    • The animals are swift, nocturnal, and omnivorous and are good swimmers. 
    • They possess sharp tusks, and, although they are normally unaggressive, they can be dangerous.
    • Habitat and Distribution : It occupies a wide variety of temperate and tropical habitats, from semi-desert to tropical rainforests, temperate woodlands, grasslands and reed jungles; often venturing onto agricultural land to forage. It is found in a variety of habitats.
      • It is the largest of the wild pigs and is native to forests ranging from western and northern Europe and North Africa to India, the Andaman Islands, and China.
    • IUCN Status: Least Concern.

    Way Ahead

    • Exploring additional measures like building moats, erecting power fences, and ensuring fodder and water availability deep inside forests to prevent wildlife from venturing near human habitats. Kerala has also declared human-wildlife conflict a state-specific disaster.

    Source: TH

    Syllabus: GS2/ Governance

    In News

    • The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) has launched the Safai Apnao, Bimaari Bhagao (SABB) initiative under Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0 to help Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) prepare for the monsoon season. 


    • SABB, a part of the ‘STOP Diarrhoea Campaign’ by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, will run from 1 July to 31 August 2024. 
    • The initiative focuses on improving sanitation and hygiene conditions during the monsoon season through activities such as cleanliness drives, waste collection, and water quality sampling. 
    • It also aims to identify high-risk areas and adopt the Protect Prevent Treat Strategy (PPTS).

    Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0 

    • It is the second phase of the Swachh Bharat Mission, a nationwide cleanliness campaign launched by the Government of India in 2014. 
    • SBM-U 2.0, launched on October 1, 2021, builds upon the achievements of the first phase and aims to make urban India “garbage free” by 2026.
    • It aims to achieve 100% source segregation of waste, door-to-door collection, and scientific management of all waste fractions, including safe disposal in scientific landfills.
      • Open Defecation Free++ (ODF++): ensure that all community and public toilets are functional and well-maintained, and treat and reuse wastewater.

    Source: PIB

    Syllabus: GS2/Health


    • The first-of-its-kind skin bank facility was established in the Armed Forces Medical Services to help treat severe skin burn injuries and other skin-related conditions for service personnel and their families.

    What is a skin bank?

    • A skin bank is a facility where the skin of deceased persons is donated. 
    • After being collected from a donor, the skin is tested for infections, processed, and frozen until it’s needed. In a skin bank, the donated skin can be preserved for up to 5 years.
    • When a burn victim requires skin for their injuries, a surgical procedure called skin grafting is conducted.

    What is skin grafting?

    • In skin grafting a piece of healthy skin is transplanted to a different area of the body where the skin is damaged or missing. 
    • There are two main types of skin grafts: autograft (skin is taken from another part of the patient’s own body) and allograft (skin is taken from a donor, often sourced from a skin bank).

    Source: India Today

    Syllabus: GS2/Governance


    • The Union Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) is testing eSakshya (e-evidence), a mobile-based application.


    • The mobile application is developed by the National Informatics Centre (NIC).
      • NIC was established in 1976 with the objective to provide technology-driven solutions to Central and State Governments.
      • It comes under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) is the technology partner of the Government of India.
    • The app is to help police record the scene of crime, search and seizure in a criminal case and upload the file on the cloud-based platform. 
    • The police official will have to upload a selfie after the procedure is complete. 
    • Each recording could be a maximum four minutes long and several such files could be uploaded for each First Information Report (FIR).
    • The new criminal laws make everything digital; if there is slightest of issue in recording a scene of crime or procuring digital evidence, it could lead to criminals walking free. 

    Source: TH

    Syllabus: GS3/Economy


    • According to a report by Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC), India’s inflation trajectory is following a K-shape recovery, hurting the consumers more living in rural areas.


    • ‘K-shaped recovery’ refers to a situation where some sectors of the economy revive after a slowdown or recession while others don’t.
    • A K-shaped recovery leads to changes in the structure of the economy or the broader society as economic outcomes and relations are fundamentally changed before and after the recession.


    • A K-shaped recovery is possible due to the creative destruction of old industries due to the development of new industries and technologies during the recession.
    • Government strategies like monetary and fiscal policies used to combat the recession can lead to a K-shaped recovery.

    Source: TH

    Syllabus: GS2/Education


    • Non-governmental organization Child Rights and You (CRY) has launched a nation-wide awareness campaign, Poori Padhai Desh Ki Bhalai.


    • It is a seven-week-long campaign, aimed to address the faltering participation of the girl child in Indian schools.
    • According to the Union Education Ministry’s UDISE+ (Unified District Information System for Education) datasets, a little less than 60 percent of girls are enrolled in higher secondary education.


    • Providing higher secondary education for girls has a strong correlation with delayed marriage for girls, improved health outcomes for the mother and the child, and offers high economic returns in the long term. 
    • Furthermore, each additional year of schooling leads to higher productivity and better job opportunities in the formal sector for girls, thus breaking the cycle of intergenerational poverty.

    Source: DTE

    Syllabus: GS3/ Defence

    In News

    • India and the US have recently discussed co-producing American Javelin anti-tank missiles to fulfill Indian military requirements. 


    • The Javelin is a premier, single-man-portable, medium-range missile system that operates on a “fire-and-forget” principle.
      • This feature allows the missile to automatically guide itself to the target after launch, enabling the operator to seek cover and avoid counter-attacks.

    Source: PIB

    Syllabus :GS 3/Species in news 

    In News

    • Human activities and changing weather patterns are threatening Flamingos.

    About Flamingos

    • Flamingos are social creatures that live in large groups of varying sizes, sometimes gathering by the thousands.
    • Habitat :  Flamingos live in a wide variety of habitats such as lagoons, estuaries, coastal and inland lakes, and mudflats. 
    • Types : The six flamingo species and their IUCN Red List status are
      •  The greater flamingo, –   Least Concern 
      • Chilean flamingo,        –    Near Threatened 
      •  American flamingo     –   Least Concern 
      •  Lesser flamingo           –  Near Threatened 
      • Andean flamingo      –Vulnerable 
      • James’s flamingo(puna flamingo)-Near Threatened   
    • Status in India : Greater flamingos usually migrate to India from Israel, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.the greater flamingo is the State bird of Gujarat
      • Lesser flamingos migrate from Siberia to Mumbai via the Rann of Kutch in Gujarat. 
    • Importance : These birds are vital environmental indicators and Their well-being is a reflection of the overall health of the ecosystem. 
    • Threats :  Climate change is altering water levels and salinity, making it harder for flamingos to find suitable nesting sites. 
    • Some of their biggest threats include habitat loss and severe droughts due to climate change.


    Syllabus :GS 1/Places in news 

    In News

    WikiLeaks founder  Julian Assange declared ‘free man’ in Saipan having pleaded guilty to violating US espionage laws in a landmark deal .


    • It is located in the Mariana Islands archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean.
    • It is the capital of the Northern Mariana Islands (NMI)
    • It has the most diverse types of coral reefs 
    • It also hosts US district courts.

    Northern Mariana Islands 

    • It is  a US commonwealth in the western Pacific which begins roughly 70 km (44 miles) north of Guam and stretches across 14 islands.
    • The principal inhabited islands are Saipan, Guguan, Rota and Tinian.
      • Like territories such as Guam or Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands are part of the US without the full status of a state.
      • The roughly 51,000 residents are US citizens but cannot vote in presidential elections.
      • Tourism is the mainstay of the economy and it is popular with Korean and Chinese tourists.