Guru Tegh Bahadur Martyrdom Day


    In News

    • November 24 is commemorated as the Shaheedi Divas of Guru Tegh Bahadur.

    More about the Guru Tegh Bahadur

    • About:
      • He was the ninth guru of the Sikhs, who stood up against forcible conversions by the Mughals, and was executed on the orders of Aurangzeb in 1675.
    • Birth:
      • Tegh Bahadur was born in Amritsar on April 21, 1621, to Mata Nanki and Guru Hargobind
        • Guru Hargobind was the sixth Sikh guru, who raised an army against the Mughals and introduced the concept of warrior saints.
    • Early years:
      • As a boy, Tegh Bahadur was called Tyag Mal because of his ascetic nature
      • He spent his early childhood in Amritsar under the tutelage of Bhai Gurdas, who taught him Gurmukhi, Hindi, Sanskrit, and Indian religious philosophy, while Baba Budha trained him in swordsmanship, archery, and horse-riding.
      • He was married to Mata Gujri at Kartarpur in 1632, and subsequently left for Bakala near Amritsar.
    • Tyag Mal to Tegh Bahadur:
      • He was only 13 when he distinguished himself in a battle against a Mughal chieftain. 
      • His bravery and swordsmanship in the battle earned him the name of Tegh Bahadur.
    • Sermons & philosophy:
      • His sermons, delivered in a mix of Sadukhri and Braj languages, were widely understood from Sindh to Bengal
      • The metaphors he used resonated with people across North India. 
      • Guru Tegh Bahadur often alluded to Panchali (Draupadi) and Ganika in his preachings.
    • Face-off with Aurangzeb & death:
      • Aurangzeb was the ruling Mughal emperor at the time. 
        • There were conversions, either through a government order or through coercion. 
        • It is believed that when people were charged with some crime or misdemeanour, they would be pardoned if they converted.
      • Protection of valley:
        • Guru was approached by Kirpa Das, a Kashmiri Brahmin who sought his protection with a group from the Valley. 
        • Das told Guru Tegh Bahadur that local chieftains had told him to convert or face retribution. 
        • The guru assured Das and his group of his protection and told them to tell the Mughals that they should first try to convert the guru.
      • Aurangzeb considered this an open challenge to his authority. 
        • Aurangzeb ordered the public execution of the Guru on November 11, 1675 after the guru declined to embrace Islam.
        • He was tortured to death and beheaded at Chandni Chowk along with his three companions.
    • Legacy:
      • At the site of Guru Tegh Bahadur’s execution stands Gurdwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi’s Chandni Chowk.

    Source: IE