Tonga Volcano


    In News

    • Recently, the experts said that the Tonga volcano wave was 9 times taller than the tsunami in Japan.

    About the recent research

    • 90 metres high
      • The initial tsunami wave created by Tonga’s underwater Hunga Tonga volcano eruption in 2022 was 90 metres high.
      • It was nine times higher than the tsunami recorded near Japan in 2011.
    • Location
      • The volcano is located approximately 70 km from the Tongan capital Nuku’alofa; this distance significantly minimizes its destructive power. 
    • Tsar Bomba 
      • The Tonga volcano eruption unleashed more energy than the Tsar Bomba, the most powerful nuclear device ever detonated. 



    • Polynesian country 
      • It is a Polynesian country and also an archipelago consisting of 171 islands of which 45 are inhabited.
        • Located in Oceania, Tonga is an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean. 
    • Boundaries
      • It is surrounded by Fiji and Wallis and Futuna (France) to the northwest; Samoa to the northeast; New Caledonia (France) and Vanuatu to the west; Niue (the nearest foreign territory) to the east; and Kermadec (New Zealand) to the southwest.
    • Climate
      • Tonga has a tropical rainforest climate. 

    Issues/ Challenges associated with the recent findings 

    • Technological barrier: Detection and monitoring systems for volcano-based tsunamis are 30 years behind similar tools used to detect earthquake-based events. 
    • Catastrophic damage: The massive volcanic eruption and tsunami in Tonga caused catastrophic damage with homes destroyed and many communities covered in thick ash. 

    Do you know?

    • The stratosphere is the layer of atmosphere between 10-50 kilometres above the surface of the Earth.
    • The water vapour is a greenhouse gas released by the volcano, roughly 10 percent of the water already present in the stratosphere.


    Significance of the recent findings 

    • Disaster management: The eruption should serve as a wake-up call for organisations working to safeguard people from such disasters in the future.
    • Monitoring of volcanic activity should be organised: More high-quality research into volcanic eruptions is always a good idea.
    • It is important to have efficient warning systems: which include both real time warnings and education on what to do in case of a tsunami or warning such systems save lives.  

    Source: DTE