Facts in News


    Facts in News

    Harlequin Ichthyosis

    • It is a rare genetic skin disorder which is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.
      • Autosomal Recessive Pattern occurs when an individual inherits an abnormal gene from each parent, who carry one copy of the mutated gene.
    • The newborn infant is covered with plates of thick skin that crack and split apart. The thick plates can pull at and distort facial features and can restrict breathing and eating.
      • The skin is dry and scaly, almost like fish skin and hence the term ‘ichthyosis’ which is derived from the Greek wordikthus’, meaning fish.
    • Mutations in the ABCA 12 gene are responsible for this condition.
      • The ABCA12 protein plays a major role in transporting fats in cells which make up the outermost layer of skin.
      • Mutations in the gene lead to the absence or partial production of the ABCA12 protein.
      • This results in lack of lipid transport affecting the skin development by varying degrees according to the severity of the mutation.
    • Such infants need to be cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit immediately.
    • Only a handful of cases have been recorded across the world and India saw its first one in 2016 in Nagpur, Maharashtra and now in Odisha.

    Tyrannosaurus Rex

    • It is considered the most fearsome animal to have evolved on Earth.
    • It lived toward the end of the Cretaceous period, around 66 million to 68 million years ago.
    • It is believed that an adult member of the species stood 12 feet tall and 40 feet long and weighed between 5,000 to 7,000 kg.
    • It inhabited what is today’s western United States extending from as far as Alaska in North America up until Mexico in the south. It was not found in India.
    • According to latest research, they had a preferred walking speed of just 5 kmph, about the same as the average walking speed of humans.

    (Image Courtesy: Britannica)


    • It is an antiviral drug used in treating people with chronic Hepatitis B and C.
    • It has been repurposed for treating moderate Covid-19 disease and the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) has granted its emergency use approval.
      • DGCI is the head of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) and is responsible for approval of licences of specified categories of drugs such as blood and blood products, IV fluids, vaccines and sera in India.
      • CDSCO is a regulatory body for Indian pharmaceuticals and medical devices.
    • A single dose subcutaneous regimen (injected under the skin) of the drug is expected to make the treatment of Covid-19 more convenient for patients.
    • When administered early on during Covid-19 infection, it helps patients recover faster and avoid much of the complications.

    Nitric Oxide

    • It is  a natural nano molecule produced by the human body .
    • It is an anti-inflammatory molecule with key roles in pulmonary vascular function in the context of viral infections and other pulmonary disease states,
    • It is known to have a broad antimicrobial effect against bacteria, fungi, helminths, protozoa and viruses.
    • Recently, a Multinational collaboration announced that a nitric oxide nasal spray can be an effective treatment against SARS-CoV-2.

    Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)

    • It has been established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006, which consolidates various acts and orders that have hitherto handled food-related issues.
    • It works as an autonomous body established under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.
    • Aims:
      • To establish a single reference point for all matters relating to food safety and standards.
      • To lay down science-based standards for articles of food.
      • To regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption.
    • FSSAI Initiative:
      • Heart Attack Rewind: First mass media campaign of FSSAI for eliminating trans fat in India by the year 2022.
      • FSSAI-CHIFSS: It is a collaboration between FSSAI and CII-HUL Initiative on Food Safety Sciences.
      • Swasth Bharat Yatra:  It is a Pan-India cycle movement called ‘Eat Right India’ aimed to create consumer awareness about eating safe and nutritious food.

    Kowloon Peninsula

    • Kowloon Peninsula, Kowloon also spelt Kaulun or Kaulung, Chinese (Pinyin) Jiulong or (Wade-Giles romanization) Chiu-lung, part of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, southeastern China.
    • It constitutes the Chinese mainland portion of the Hong Kong region and is located north of Hong Kong Island and east of the mouth of the Pearl (Zhu) River Delta.
    • Geographically, it consists of two portions: 
      • The hillier, more rural, and farmed New Territories to the north and west .
      • The more residential and industrial Kowloon area to the south and east. 
    • In some instances, the use of the name Kowloon Peninsula is restricted to only the southern section of the peninsula that directly faces Hong Kong Island and is surrounded on three sides by Victoria Harbour.

     Image Courtesy:Planning Department 

    • Hong Kong is set to grant a site on the western Kowloon peninsula to Beijing’s national security office for its permanent base in the city.