Nagoya Protocol


    In Context

    • Mexican indigenous groups are yet to benefit under Nagoya Protocol.

    About Nagoya Protocol

    • The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization (ABS) is a supplementary agreement to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).
    • It provides a transparent legal framework for the effective implementation of one of the three objectives of the CBD: the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.
    • The Nagoya Protocol on ABS was adopted on 29 October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan and entered into force on 12 October 2014, 90 days after the deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification. 
    • It is supplementary to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD).


    • The Nagoya Protocol applies to genetic resources that are covered by the CBD, and to the benefits arising from their utilization. 
    • The Nagoya Protocol also covers traditional knowledge (TK) associated with genetic resources that are covered by the CBD and the benefits arising from its utilization.


    • The Nagoya Protocol will create greater legal certainty and transparency for both providers and users of genetic resources by:
      • Establishing more predictable conditions for access to genetic resources.
      • Helping to ensure benefit-sharing when genetic resources leave the country providing the genetic resources
      • By helping to ensure benefit-sharing, the Nagoya Protocol creates incentives to conserve and sustainably use genetic resources, and therefore enhances the contribution of biodiversity to development and human well-being.

    India Signatory to Protocol

    • India signed the Nagoya Protocol in 2011 and ratified it in October 2012. 
    • The ratification by India was done at the 11th Conference of Parties (COP) to the CBD, which was conducted in Hyderabad.