Aneurysm

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    In Context 

    • Actor Emilia Clarke, who appeared in Game of Thrones, has revealed her struggle with a brain aneurysm that caused the loss of “quite a bit” of the organ.

    What is Aneurysm?

    • It is a swelling of the arteries and veins in any part of the body, and is caused by weakening of the walls. It occurs most commonly in the aorta, back of the knees, brain or intestines. 
      • If the aneurysm gets ruptured, it can even cause internal bleeding and stroke.
    • Blood vessels of the brain and the heart are the most common locations to get seriously affected. 
    • The swelling can be of two types.
      •  Either the complete blood vessel is swollen or a specific side of the blood vessel can bulge out from the sides.
    • Causes 
      • Potential risk factors for aneurysm include smoking, age, high cholesterol, obesity, hypertension or tissue disorders.
      •  Pregnancy can also increase risk of aneurysm of the spleen.
    • Treatment innovation
      • A device called flow diversion stent is a new innovative intervention for treatment of aneurysm for the initial stages, when it has not ruptured. 
      • A cylindrical, metallic mesh stent is placed inside the sac of the parent blood vessel to divert the blood flow from the aneurysm. 
      • The diversion is aimed at preventing rupture.
        •  Flow diversion can be used to treat large or giant wide-necked brain aneurysms.
    • Risk reduction
      • Most cases being congenital, it is not always possible to prevent aneurysm, but certain lifestyle changes can help reduce risk. 
      • These include quitting smoking; maintaining a healthy blood pressure by sticking to a balanced diet; maintaining a healthy body weight; and avoiding a high cholesterol diet.

    Source:IE