Zoonoses Theory of SARS-COVID-2

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    In News

    • Recently, New evidence has emerged supporting the zoonotic origin of COVID.

    About

    • A zoonotic disease is an infectious disease that is transmitted between species from animals to humans (or from humans to animals). 
    • Rabies, Marburg disease, MERS, Monkeypox, Nipah are some of the examples of Viral  zoonotic diseases. Diseases like anthrax, brucellosis, plague, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, lyme disease are caused due to bacterial zoonoses.
    • There are two prevalent theories concerning the origin of covid. One is that the virus  was already present in animals and the first human infection happened in the Meat market in Wuhan.
    • The other theory suggests the virus had origins in a parasitic lab and leaked from there.
    • The evidence presented to the Scientific Advisory Group for the Origins of Novel Pathogens found samples from the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market containing the virus which also had human genetic material.

    Increasing Incidence

    • Ecological changes: with unchecked exploitation of ecosystems,humans have come into contact with  unaccustomed ecosystem in which potential pathogens form part of the biotic community
    •  Increased trade in animal products: increased trade in Wool, bone meal, meat, etc. has opened up a new avenue  for  introducing disease into new territories.
    • Climate Change: Due to increase in temperature places which were inhospitable  for micro organisms have become more hospitable.

    Impacts

    • Zoonotic diseases are harder to predict and therefore are harder to manage. They divert precious state resources and impact the vulnerable sections the most. 
    •  Mortality rate increases because comorbidities which were manageable till the pandemic become fatal as the body gets weakened fighting the zoonotics.
    • Increased Antibiotic usage for zoonotics leads to the development of antimicrobial resistance which makes it harder to fight infections.
    • As zoonotics spread easily ,isolation protocols are required for their control .With isolation economic activity comes to a halt.

    Way Forward

    • Instead of separate protocols,our health system should incorporate the concept of one health,which leads to  collaboration between local, national, and global experts from public health, health care, forestry, veterinary, environmental, and other related disciplines to bring about optimal health for humans, animals, and the environment.

    Source: TH