Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework


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    About Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework

    • The framework has 23 targets that the world needs to achieve by 2030.
    • The targets are ambitious, considering that biodiversity is in a poor state.
      •  In 2020, the world failed to meet the last set of targets, the Aichi Targets. 
        • Countries would need to ensure success this time around. 
    • Delegates were able to build consensus around the deal’s most ambitious target of protecting 30% of the world’s land and seas by the decade’s end, a goal known as 30-by-30.
    • The deal also directs countries to allocate $200 billion per year for biodiversity initiatives from both the public and private sectors.
    • The Global Environment Facility has been requested to establish a Special Trust Fund to support the implementation of the Global Biodiversity Framework (“GBF Fund”). 
      • This is to ensure successful implementation.

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    • It hopes to arrest the ongoing loss of terrestrial and marine biodiversity.
      • It means people around the world can hope for real progress to halt biodiversity loss and protect and restore our lands and seas in a way that safeguards our planet and respects the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities.

    About the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

    • Opened for signature in 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, and entering into force in December 1993
    • The CBD is an international treaty for the conservation of biodiversity, the sustainable use of the components of biodiversity and the equitable sharing of the benefits derived from the use of genetic resources.
    • With 196 Parties, the CBD has near universal participation among countries.
    • The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-Sharing are supplementary agreements to the CBD.
      •  The Cartagena Protocol, which entered into force 11 September 2003, seeks to protect biodiversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology.