Goa Liberation Day

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    In Context 

    • Goa is marking its 60th Liberation Day which is always celebrated with fervour.

    Goa Liberation Day

    • About:
      • It is celebrated on 19th December every year to mark the success of ‘Operation Vijay’( a 36-hour military operation) undertaken by the Indian Armed Forces that liberated Goa from Portuguese rule.
      • It is celebrated to recognise the achievements of Goa in the tourism sector.
    • Background:
    • Goa had been an important port for trade as well as military operations of the Portuguese, who ruled the region for over four and a half centuries
    • Historically, revolts against Portuguese rulers and their policies were recorded in the 18th and 19th centuries.
      • On June 18, 1946, the movement for the liberation of Goa started gaining momentum as socialist Dr Ram Manohar Lohia joined the Goans in their struggle.
        •  June 18, therefore, is celebrated in the state as Goa Revolution Day.
      • Despite this struggle, and India gaining Independence from British rule on August 15, 1947, the Portuguese did not liberate Goa until 14 years later.
        • Once India attained freedom, the call for independence of Goa from Portuguese rule intensified, and while some freedom fighters led agitations, many others attempted to hold peace talks to get the country free using diplomacy.
        • In the end, however, Indian Armed Forces were sent by then PM Jawaharlal Nehru, after which the Portuguese rulers surrendered and liberated Goa on December 19, 1961.

    What happened after the liberation of Goa?

    • The Goa was annexed into the Indian Union and became the Union Territory of India along with Daman and Diu.
    •  In 1967, however, the question of whether the state should merge with Maharashtra or not was answered through a plebiscite in which the majority of the Goan people voted against a merger.
    •  It continued to remain a Union Territory until 1987 when it was accorded statehood. 
    • Goa became India’s 25th state even as Daman and Diu continue to be Union Territories.

    Goa: Key Facts

    • It is located on the southwestern coast of India within the region known as the Konkan, and geographically separated from the Deccan highlands by the Western Ghats.
    • It is bounded by the states of Maharashtra on the north and Karnataka on the east and south and by the Arabian Sea on the west.
    • It’s official language is Konkani, is one of the 22 languages from the Eight Schedule. It was added in the list along with Manipuri and Nepali by the 71st Amendment Act of 1992.
    • The highest point of Goa is Sonsogor. Goa’s seven major rivers are the Zuari, Mandovi, Terekhol, Chapora, Galgibag, Kumbarjua canal, Talpona and the Sal.
    • Most of Goa’s soil cover is made up of laterites.

    Source: IE