Compressed Biogas (CBG)

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    Context

    • The Union Petroleum Minister announced that Compressed BioGas (CBG) is the need of the hour and the government is taking all necessary steps to promote the CBG ecosystem.

    About: 

    • The Union Minister of Petroleum & Natural Gas and Housing & Urban Affairs inaugurated Asia’s largest Compressed Bio Gas plant in Lehragaga, Sangrur in the state of Punjab.
    • CBG plant in Sangrur marked the beginning of India’s master plan for a CBG-based rural economy.
    • The Plant has been commissioned with an FDI investment of Rs. 220 crores (approx.) by Verbio AG, one of Germany’s leading Bio-energy companies. 

    Utility of the CBG Plant

    • Employment Generation: Sangrur CBG Plant is expected to provide direct employment to 390 and indirect employment to 585 people, thereby providing additional income to farmers.
    • Reduce Carbon Footprint: The plant will also reduce stubble burning of 40,000 – 45,000 acres of fields, translating into an annual reduction of 150,000 tons of CO2 emissions and clean air with reduced air pollution.
    • Attainment of Climate Goals: It will contribute in achievement of India’s COP26 Climate Change targets of total projected carbon emissions by one billion tonnes from now to 2030 achieving the target of net zero emissions by 2070.
    • SATAT Scheme: It will fulfill the objectives of the Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT) scheme 2018 to establish an ecosystem for production of CBG from various waste/ biomass sources in India. 
    • 38 CBG / Biogas Plants have already been commissioned under the scheme. 
    • Capacity Enhancement: Spread across an area of 20 acres (approx.), Sangrur plant’s present production is about 6 TPD CBG with the ability to process 300 Tons Per Day of paddy straw at max. capacity to produce 33 TPD of CBG using 8 digesters of 10,000 cubic meters.
    • Boost to organic farming: There shall be daily production of about 600-650 Tons of FOM (Fermented Organic Manure), which can be used for organic farming. 
    • Facilitate ‘Make in India’: It will boost the efforts being made to encourage the indigenous manufacturing of CBG Plant equipment such as Cascades, Compressors & Dispensers, and ramp up ‘Make in India’ opportunities across India’s manufacturing sector. 
    • Convergence of schemes and benefits: For farmers welfare, the plant was inaugurated after the following events- 
    • PM’s release of the 12th installment (Rs. 16,000 crores) of the PM-KISAN direct benefit transfer scheme. 
    • The PM’s inauguration of 600 Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samruddhi Kendras (PMKSK): to serve as sales centers for fertilizer and a mechanism for establishing a deep bond with the farmers.
    • Launch of the Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Urvarak Pariyojana-One Nation One Fertiliser scheme for ensuring affordable quality fertilizer under the ‘Bharat’ brand to the farmers.

    Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT) scheme:  

    Launched by the government in 2018, the SATAT scheme aims to-

    • Achieve the target production of 15 Million Metric Ton (MMT) of CBG by 2023-24 from 5000 CBG Plants.
    • Empower and unleash the rural economy by supporting farmers
    • Undertake developmental efforts to benefit vehicle users and entrepreneurs.
    • Increase India’s domestic energy production and self-sufficiency  by reducing dependency on crude oil imports.
    • Efficient tackling of urban air pollution due to farm stubble-burning and carbon emissions 
    • Promotion of organic farming by using Fermented Organic Manure (FOM) produced from CBG plants.
    • Help India lead the world toward a clean energy transition. 

    National Policy on Bio Fuels -2018

    The Policy aims to increase the usage of biofuels in the energy and transportation sectors of the country during the coming decade.

    It also aims to derive the following benefits

    • Reduction in Crude and LNG imports thereby huge savings in forex
    • Utilization, development and promotion of domestic feedstock and its utilization for production of biofuels
    • Increasingly substitute fossil fuels while contributing to National Energy Security
    • Climate Change mitigation and control in pollution
    • Creation of new employment opportunities in a sustainable way
    • Encouragement in the application of advanced technologies for the generation of biofuels

    Process of Formation of CBG

    • Raw Material: Waste/Bio-mass sources like agricultural residue, cattle dung, sugarcane press mud, municipal solid waste, sewage treatment plant waste, etc. produce Bio Gas through the process of anaerobic decomposition. 
    • Purification: The Bio-Gas is purified to remove hydrogen sulphide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapour and compressed as Compressed Bio Gas (CBG), which has methane (CH4) content of more than 90%. 

    CBG Significance as a fuel

    • CBG has calorific value and other properties similar to CNG and hence can be utilized as green renewable automotive fuel. 
    • Thus, it can replace CNG in automotive, industrial and commercial areas, given the abundance of biomass availability within the country.

    Way Forward

    • Union Minister of Petroleum & Natural Gas considers CBG plants are a huge leap forward in arriving at a win-win situation for farmers and the environment.
    • SATAT scheme and CBG plants will help in India’s transition towards attainment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) such as-
    • SDG 7-Affordable and clean energy
    • SDG 11-Sustainable cities and communities
    • SDG 12-Responsible consumption and production]
    • SDG 13-Climate Action

    Source: TH