Facts in News


    Facts in News

    Gotipua Dance

    Gotipua is a traditional dance form in the state of Odisha.

    Gotipua Dance

    • In the Odia language, Gotipua means “single boy”.
    • It is the precursor of Odissi classical dance.
    • Traditionally, it has been performed by young boys in groups, who dress as women to praise Lord Jagannath and Krishna. 
    • This dance form comprises acrobatic figures inspired by the life of Radha and Krishna.
    • Music Instruments: Mardala, Gini (small cymbals), harmonium, violin, and bansuri.
    • Main Components:
      • Vandana
      • Sarigama
      • Abhinaya
      • Bandha Nrutya
    • Unlike the Maharis, the devadasis of Odisha, whose role was confined to the temples, Gotipuas had the advantage of performing at both sacred and secular spaces, both for gods and for people.

    Image Courtesy: Amrita.edu


    In the early 19th century, artists mingled science with fantasy to recreate dinosaurs for popular imagination.

    • The painters show dinosaurs in apocalyptic forests with an erupting volcano in the background.

    Key Points

    • This art form began in the 1800s, with the discovery of the first fossils from the Mesozoic era.
    • Paleoart is any original artistic work that attempts to depict prehistoric life according to scientific evidence.
      • It is a complex art form
    • The term “paleoart” is a portmanteau of paleo, the Ancient Greek word for “old,” and “art”.
      • It was introduced in the late 1980s by Mark Hallett for art that depicts subjects related to palaeontology.
    • In this painting, the artists basically represent fossil remains or imagined depictions of the living creatures and their ecosystems.
      • It depicts prehistoric animals in popular culture.
    • Focus Areas: Accuracy and diversity in style and depiction.

    Image Courtesy: The Hindu

    Gholvad Sapota

    Recently, Dahanu Gholvad Sapota (chikoo) has been exported to the United Kingdom.

    Key Points

    • It is a GI (Geographical Indication) tagged product.
      • GI products offer good potential for export.
    • It is grown in calcium-rich soil.
    • Major growing states: Karnataka (largest producer), Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Andhra Pradesh.

    Image Courtesy: Swarajya Magazine


    GI (Geographical Indication) Tag

    • GI is a sign used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin.
      • It is a part of the intellectual property rights that comes under the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property.
    • In India, Geographical Indications registration is administered by the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act of 1999
    • Items Covered: Agricultural products, foodstuffs, wine and spirit drinks, handicrafts, and industrial products.

    Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA)

    • Founded in: 1986
    • Headquarters: New Delhi
    • It is an apex-Export Trade Promotion Active body, which works under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
      • It promotes exports of agricultural & processed food items (including GI products) by providing assistance to the exporters.
      • It also supports exports through various schemes like Trade Infrastructure for Export Scheme (TIES), Market Access Initiative (MAI), etc.

    Bubble curtain

    The Yamuna river will get a bubble curtain to stop plastic from entering the river.

    Bubble Curtain

    • It is a non-invasive solution to stop plastic from entering the oceans.
      • Ships and fish can pass through the air bubbles, but plastics will be stopped. 
    • The bubble screen is created by a specially designed air tube which is placed diagonally on the bed of the canal or river.
      • These air tubes are connected with a compressor which is powered by renewable solar energy
      • Further, aeration in the canal will increase dissolved oxygen levels in the wastewater/stormwater leading to an overall improvement in the water quality.
    • It brings waste to the surface, channels the plastic onto the banks where it can be extracted.
      • The plastic waste extracted from the canal will be taken to a Municipal Solid Waste treatment and Materials Recovery Facility.

    Image Courtesy: Engineer Live

    Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY)

    Recently, the Central government said that it has approved 22 new All India Institutes of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) under Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY).

    Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY)

    • Launched in: 2003
    • Administered by: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
    • Objective: To correct the imbalances in the availability of affordable healthcare facilities and augmenting facilities for quality medical education.
    • Components:
      • Setting up new AIIMS (All India Institute of Medical Sciences)
      • Upgradation of government medical colleges in various states.
    • The cost of setting up institutions will be equally shared by the states and central government.

    Rajasthan Declares Mucormycosis An Epidemic

    Recently, the Rajasthan government has declared mucormycosis, or black fungus, as an epidemic and a notifiable disease.

    • If an infected person comes into notice, then the medical institution has to inform the government authorities immediately.

    Image Courtesy: TOI

    Outbreaks, Epidemics and Pandemics

    • Outbreak: 
      • It is a sudden rise in the number of cases of a disease. 
      • An outbreak may occur in a community or geographical area or may affect several countries. 
      • It may last for a few days or weeks, or even for several years.
      • E.g; SWINE Flu
    • Epidemic:
      • It is a disease that affects a large number of people within a community, population, or region, e.g; Black Fungs in Rajasthan.
    • Pandemic:
      • A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. 
      • It may affect a wider geographical area often worldwide and infects a greater number of people than an epidemic.
      • E.g; COVID-19

    COVAX Programme

    Recently, the United States has decided to provide 80 million vaccine doses under the COVAX programme.

    COVAX Programme

    • Establishment year: April 2020.
    • Established by: 
      • World Health Organization,
      • Center for Epidemic Preparedness and Innovation (CEPI),
      • Gavi,
      • UNICEF (United Nations’ children’s fund).
    • Funded by: various NGOs like Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, UNICEF, and the World Bank.
    • Objective: To pre-purchase huge quantities of vaccines from the major manufacturers and allow smaller nations to get vaccines at the same price as larger countries. 
    • Aim: To distribute two billion Covid-19 vaccine doses by the end of 2021
    • Features:
      • No country receives vaccines for more than 20% of their population before all countries have vaccinated at least 20% of the population.