Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction 2022


    In Context

    • Recently, the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction, 2022 (GP 2022) took place in Indonesia.


    • The theme of 2022 was ‘From Risk to Resilience: Towards Sustainable Development For All in a COVID-19 Transformed World’. 
    • It is an important first milestone in the mid-term review of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030).
    • The outcome of GP2022 was summarised in the co-chairs’ Bali Agenda for Resilience.

    Key outcomes

    • Approach to Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR):
      • Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) must be at the core of development and finance policies, legislation and plans to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).
      • The real cost of disasters is that of inaction, which must be weighed against investments in DRR.
    • Climate change and the ecosystem building:
      • Current greenhouse gas emission levels far exceed their mitigation, resulting in an increase in frequency and intensity of catastrophic events.
      • Ecosystems should be considered as critical infrastructure and recognised for their basic services, bringing environmental, socio-economic and cultural benefits.
      • DRR and climate change adaptation have the common objective of reducing vulnerability and enhancing capacity as well as resilience.
    • Inclusivity and the role of society:
      • There is a need for a whole-of-society approach to disaster risk reduction (DRR), ensuring no one is left behind.
      • A participatory and human rights-based approach in DRR planning and implementation is crucial as people are affected differently by disasters.
      • The development of multi-hazard early warning systems, inclusive of communities most at risk.
    • COVID 19 recovery:
      • The need for a transformative recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, to build back better, greener and more equitably.
      • Recovery and reconstruction are most successful when they are community-driven and support existing local structures and resilience-building mechanisms.
    • Understanding risk:
      • Risk understanding remains limited, particularly regarding emerging and future hazards, with government policies largely reactive.

    Issues and challenges

    • The whole-of-society approach might ensure resources but will not necessarily ensure focus on the most vulnerable communities and places
    • The element of call for action – leaving no one behind might ensure the focus but not the resources
    • Corporates will look for maximising the profit, disregarding its effect on the environment. 
      • There have been numerous examples for this in the entire world. 
      • There are DRR components in investments which far outweighs its negative impact.

    Disaster Management in India

    • National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA):
      • It is the apex statutory body for Disaster Management in India, established through the Disaster Management Act, 2005.
      • The Disaster Management Act envisaged the creation of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), headed by the Prime Minister, and State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) headed by respective Chief Ministers, to spearhead and implement a holistic and integrated approach to Disaster Management in India.
    • National Disaster Response Force (NDRF):
      • Established in 2006, NDRF is the world’s single largest force dedicated to disaster response.
      • It is functioning under the Ministry of Home Affairs, within the overall command, control and leadership of the Director-General.
      • At present, the NDRF consists of 15 battalions from the BSF, CISF, CRPF, ITBP, SSB and Assam Rifles.
      • It is a multi-skilled and high-tech force that effectively responds to all types of natural and man-made disasters, including building collapses, landslides, devastating floods, and cyclones.

    Initiatives by india

    • India is taking the lead and offering the expertise of Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (DRI) to its friendly countries .
    • Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) was first proposed by India during the 2016 Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in New Delhi.
    • Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief (HADR) operations:
      • Indian defence forces, under the aegis of Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS) have been carrying out HADR operations within the country as well as outside the country to deepen coordination with its neighbours and friendly countries with a focus on sharing expertise and building capabilities.
    • India has developed a large capacity for production of COVID-19 vaccines and is extending help to many countries.

    Suggestions & way ahead

    • Budgetary requirements:
      • There is a requirement of greater budgetary allocation at central and state levels and revision of national / state disaster response funds norms to allot more resources at gram panchayat level. 
      • This is important because only if resources are there, then the district administration would have more resources to act on both at the planning level and action level.  
      • These include evacuation, maintenance of cyclone shelters as well as proper, adequate and timely compensation and so on. 
    • Transparency mechanisms:
      • We need to standardise transparency mechanisms to include transparency boards, clearly mentioning the cost, quality and quantity of relief items, social audits and citizens’ reports. 
      • This needs to be the standard practice in all relief operations, both by government and civil society actors.
    • Rural infrastructure and traditional knowledge:
      • We need to build rural infrastructure in the disaster-prone areas in the country but not at the cost of livelihood recovery (climate-resilient, sustainable livelihoods) and meeting of the immediate needs. 
      • The tribal communities in India adopt such low-cost traditional technologies that help them mitigate the impact of natural disasters like drought.
    • Environmental protection is the key:
      • Governments should strictly impose the law and international conventions related to environmental protection.

    Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030

    • The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 was adopted at the Third UN World Conference in Sendai, Japan, on March 18, 2015.
    • It is the successor agreement to the Hyogo Framework for Action (2005–2015), which had been the most encompassing international accord to date on disaster risk reduction.
    • It applies to the risk of small-scale and large-scale, frequent and infrequent, sudden and slow-onset disasters caused by natural or man-made hazards, as well as related environmental, technological and biological hazards and risks.
    • The Sendai Framework sets four specific priorities for action:
      • Understanding disaster risk;
      • Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk;
      • Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience;
      • Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response, and to “Building Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

    Source: DTE