Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Jayanti


    In News 

    • The Prime Minister paid tribute to Maratha empire founder Chhatrapati Shivaji on his 392nd birth anniversary. 

    About Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Jayanti

    • It was initiated by social reformer Mahatma Jyotirao Phule in 1870. He identified the tomb of Shivaji Maharaj in Raigad.
    • The first Shivaji Jayanti celebrations were held in Pune. 
    • Shivaji Jayanti was taken forward by an esteemed freedom fighter Bal Gangadhar Tilak who brought the contributions of Shivaji Maharaj into the light and influence people by highlighting the image of Shivaji Maharaj.

    About Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj 

    • Early Life:
      • Born on February 19, 1630, at Shivneri Fort in Pune.
      • He was born to Shahaji Bhonsle, a Maratha general who held the jagirs of Pune and Supe under the Bijapur Sultanate.
      • Shivaji’s mother was Jijabai, a pious woman whose religious qualities had a profound influence on him.
      • Shivaji was not named after Lord Shiva. 
        • His name was derived from the name of a regional deity – Goddess Shivai.
    • Kingdom:
      • He carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of the Maratha Empire.
      • In 1674, he was formally crowned as the Chhatrapati (Monarch) of his realm at Raigad.
      • The kingdom’s security was based on religious toleration and the functional integration of the Brahmans, Marathas, and Prabhus.
      • He had a council of ministers (Asht Pradhan) to advise him on the matters of the state but he was not bound by it. He could appoint or dismiss them.
      • The brave warrior died in 1680 but is still known for his courage and intelligence.


                                                      Image Courtesy:businessinsider.

    • Contributions:
    • He revived ancient Hindu political traditions, court conventions and promoted the usage of Marathi and Sanskrit, rather than Persian, in court and administration.
    • India’s first-ever navy in the modern era was built by Shivaji to protect the coast of Maharashtra. 
      • The Maratha Navy guarded the Jaigad, Sindhudurg, Vijaydurg and other forts along the coast of Maharashtra.
    • He established a competent and progressive civil rule with the help of disciplined military and well-structured administrative organisations.
    • He innovated military tactics, pioneering non-conventional methods(guerrilla warfare) and leveraged strategic factors like geography, speed, and surprise.
    • He focused on pinpoint attacks to defeat his larger and more powerful enemies.
    • He placed the well-being of his people above everything.
    • A brave and genuinely secular ruler, he respected women and cared for the downtrodden and farmers.
    • Steps Taken in his Honour:
    • The Indian Navy’s INS Shivaji is named after him.
    • The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly known as Victoria Terminus in Mumbai is also named after him.
    • Shri Chatrapati Shivaji  Maharaj Memorial National Committee -Conceptualised & pioneered in 1981 by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi.
    • In 1895 Bal Gangadhar Tilak started the Shivaji festival to stimulate nationalism among young Maharashtrians by holding up the example of Shivaji for emulation
    • The Goa government released a short film on Chhatrapati Shivaji on the occasion of the anniversary of the Maratha king’s coronation day.
    • The Centre is due to make a decision soon on a proposal to rename 13 airports in the country, including Maharashtra’s Aurangabad airport as ‘Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj Airport’,