International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer

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    In News

    • Recently, India organised a programme to observe the 28th World Ozone Day

    Publications of the Ozone Cell

    • The 23rd edition of “The Montreal Protocol: India’s Success Story” was released. 
    • Action Plan for implementing the recommendations of the India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP) for the thematic Area Space Cooling in Buildings
    • Study Report on Public Procurement Policies for Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning (RAC) Equipment using non-ODS based refrigerants
    • Study Report on Cold Chain sector in India for Promoting non-ODS and Low-GWP Refrigerants
    • Booklet on Good Servicing Practices for Energy Efficient operation of Room Air conditioners

    About World Ozone Day

    • World Ozone Day is celebrated on 16th September each year to commemorate the signing of the Montreal Protocol that came into force on this day in 1987. 
    • It is celebrated every year to spread awareness among people about the depletion of Ozone Layer and the measures taken and to be taken to preserve it.  
    • The theme of World Ozone Day 2022 is “Montreal Protocol@35: global cooperation protecting life on earth”.

    India’s Efforts & Achievements 

    • Montreal Protocol:
      • India has played a proactive role in the phase-out of production and consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances
      • India has not been a traditional contributor to global emissions, but in its actions, it is showing the intent to be a problem solver
      • India phased out Chlorofluorocarbons, Carbon tetrachloride, Halons, Methyl Bromide and Methyl Chloroform for controlled uses as on 1 January 2010, in line with the Montreal Protocol schedule.
      • India is among the countries which has stated that the country’s sustainable development will be such that net zero is achieved by 2070
    • Phasing out of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons: 
      • Currently, Hydrochlorofluorocarbons are being phased out as per the accelerated schedule of the Montreal Protocol.  
      • Hydrochlorofluorocarbons Phase-out Management Plan (HPMP) Stage – I has been successfully implemented from 2012 to 2016 and Hydrochlorofluorocarbons Phase-out Management Plan (HPMP) Stage – II is under implementation since 2017 and will be completed by 2023.  
      • Stage III of the HPMP, the last of the HPMPs to phase out remaining HCFCs, will be implemented from 2023 – 2030. 
      • The phase-out of HCFCs in all manufacturing sectors, comprising refrigeration and air-conditioning manufacturing sectors, will be completed by 1.1.2025 and the activities relating to the servicing sector will be continued till 2030.
    • Kigali Amendment:
      • India played a key role in the finalization of the Kigali Amendment. 
      • After ratifying the same in September 2021, the central government is working towards developing a national strategy, in close consultation with the industry stakeholders, for phasing down Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
    • Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions: 
      • The study on reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions through phase-out of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) was carried out by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC).
      • It estimates that the reduction of GHG emissions due to phase-out of ODS till 2022 is 465 million tonne CO2 equivalent. 
      • It is expected that the reduction of GHG emissions till 2030 is expected to be 778 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent.
    • India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP):
      • The goal is to provide socio-economic and environmental benefits related to reduced refrigerant use, climate change mitigation and Sustainable Development Goals over the period 2037-38. 
      • This will significantly contribute to India’s climate action in achieving the net zero emissions by 2070, through the ‘Panchamrita’, committed by the Prime Minister of India, at the Climate Change Conference of Parties in 2021.
    • Research and Development: 
      • The Environment Ministry will soon be entering into collaboration with eight Indian Institutes of Technology (Bombay, Roorkee, Hyderabad, Kanpur, Guwahati, Banaras, Madras and Delhi) to promote research and development of chemicals with low global warming potential, including blends. 
      • These can be used as alternatives to substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol. 
      • The collaborative research will be done in line with industry requirements through engagement of research scholars, leading to the development of a robust R&D ecosystem in this area, and will also help promote the Make in India initiative of the Government.

    Way Ahead

    • The world is facing a climate crisis because of wasteful use of energy, calling for adopting the mantra of L.I.F.E (Lifestyle for Environment) which was coined by the Prime Minister of India. 
    • The mantra is in line with the concept of sustainable lifestyle, encouraging us to adopt mindful and not mindless consumption and utilization of resources.

    Ozone Layer

    • The ozone layer, a fragile shield of gas, protects the Earth from the harmful portion of the rays of the sun, thus helping preserve life on the planet.
    • Good Ozone:
      • Ozone occurs naturally in the Earth’s upper atmosphere (Stratosphere) where it forms a protective layer that shields us from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays.
      • This “good” ozone is gradually being destroyed by man-made chemicals referred to as Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODS), including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform.
    • Bad Ozone:
      • In the Earth’s lower atmosphere (troposphere) near ground level, ozone is formed when pollutants emitted by cars, power plants, industrial boilers, refineries, chemical plants, and other sources react chemically in the presence of sunlight.
      • Surface level ozone is a harmful air pollutant.

    Montreal Protocol at 35: Global cooperation protecting life on earth

    • The Montreal Protocol ended one of the biggest threats ever to face humanity as a whole: the depletion of the ozone layer. 
    • When the world found out that ozone-depleting gases used in aerosols and cooling were creating a hole in the sky, they came together. 
    • The world showed that multilateralism and effective global cooperation worked and they phased out these gases. 
    • Now the ozone layer is healing, allowing it once again to shield humanity from the sun’s ultraviolet radiation.

    Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer

    • The scientific confirmation of the depletion of the ozone layer prompted the international community to establish a mechanism for cooperation to take action to protect the ozone layer. 
    • This was formalized in the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer.
    • It was adopted and signed by 28 countries, on 22 March 1985
    • In September 1987, this led to the drafting of The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

    Source: PIB