Direct Seeding of Rice (DSR) Technique

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    Recently, The Punjab government has decided to bring one million hectares under the Direct Seeding of Rice (DSR) technique for the crop this year.

    • Punjab farmers had planted paddy using the DSR technique during the Kharif season last year too.

    Need & Objective

    • The government is promoting DSR during the Kharif season this year to conserve 10 to 15 per cent of irrigation water as compared to the puddle transplanted rice. 
    • The promotion of DSR will lead to the conservation of groundwater, therefore, reduced power consumption and save farmers from a labour shortage. 

    Direct Seeding of Rice (DSR)

    • Direct seeding is a method under which pre-germinated seeds are directly drilled into the field by a tractor-powered machine.
    • There is no nursery preparation or transplantation involved in this method. 
      • In this water is replaced by real chemical herbicides and farmers have to only level their land and give one pre-sowing irrigation.
        • The Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) in Ludhiana has developed a ‘Lucky Seed Drill’ that can both sow seeds and simultaneously spray herbicides to control weeds. 

    Advantages 

    • Water savings because the first irrigation (apart from the pre-sowing rain) under DSR is necessary only 21 days after sowing. 
    • Less requirement of labour.  
    • Reduction in methane emissions and global warming potential
    • Little disturbance to soil structure
    • Enhanced system productivity

    Disadvantage 

    • The main issue is the availability of herbicides.
    • The seed requirement for DSR is also higher than transplanting. 
    •  Land levelling is compulsory in DSR, therefore, increases the cost.
    • In the DSR technique plants have to come out properly before the monsoon rains arrive, early sowing is required.
    • The DSR method is not suitable on certain types of soil and in such fields only transplanting methods work.

    Difference Between DSR & Normal Transplantation

    • In transplanting, farmers prepare nurseries where the paddy seeds are first sown and raised into young plants. These seedlings are then uprooted and replanted 25-35 days later in the main field.

    About Kharif Crops 

    • Kharif crops are grown with the onset of monsoon in different parts of the country and these are harvested in September-October.
    • Important crops grown during this season are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong,urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soya bean.
    • Some of the most important rice-growing regions are Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Maharashtra, particularly the (Konkan coast) along with Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Recently, paddy has also become an important crop of Punjab and Haryana. In states like Assam, West Bengal and Odisha.

    Source: IE