Monkeypox

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    In News

    • Recently, the Fourth meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) (IHR) Emergency Committee on the Multi-Country Outbreak of monkeypox was held.
      • The International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005 are a legally binding agreement of 196 countries to build the capability to detect and report potential public health emergencies worldwide.

    Current Global Statistics by WHO

    • As many as 85,765 confirmed and 1,382 probable cases of mpox (monkeypox) have been reported from 110 countries since January 1, 2022.
    • The United States was the most affected, recording 29,948 confirmed cases during the period. It was followed by Brazil, Spain, France, and Colombia.

    Monkeypox

    • About:
      • It is a viral zoonotic disease that occurs primarily in tropical rainforest areas of Central and West Africa and is occasionally exported to other regions. It is endemic to Nigeria.
      • It is caused by the monkeypox virus, a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae.
      • The clinical presentation of monkeypox resembles that of smallpox, a related orthopoxvirus infection which was declared eradicated worldwide in 1980.
    • Historical Outbreaks:
      • The first case of monkeypox was reported in 1958 in monkeys and in humans in 1970 in western Africa.
      • Nigeria witnessed the biggest outbreak of the disease in 2017.
      • Thereafter, the disease has been reported in many countries including the USA, Singapore, UK.
    • Symptoms:
      • Fever
      • Rash and swollen lymph nodes
      • Headaches and nausea
    • Transmission:
      • Monkeypox virus is mostly transmitted to people from wild animals such as rodents and primates, but human-to-human transmission also occurs (close physical contact).
      • Monkeypox virus is transmitted from one person to another by contact with lesions, body fluids, respiratory droplets and contaminated materials such as bedding.
    • How is it different from smallpox?
      • The main difference between the symptoms of smallpox and monkeypox is that the latter causes lymph nodes to swell (lymphadenopathy) while smallpox does not.
    • Treatment:
      • There is no specific treatment or vaccine available for Monkeypox infection. 
      • People exposed to the virus are often given one of several smallpox vaccines.
      • Antiviral drugs like brincidofovir and tecovirimat.

    Way Ahead for India

    • Raising awareness and improved surveillance
    • Preparedness of Health facilities after the drop in cases of long Covid-19.

    Source: DTE