Facts in News


    Facts in News

    Ultraviolet-C Technology

    Recently, it has been decided that Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) air duct disinfection systems would be installed in Parliament for mitigation of Covid-19.

    • It was developed by the Council Of Scientific And Industrial Research-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIR-CSIO).
    • It is designed to fit into any existing air-ducts and the virucidal dosages using UV-C intensity and residence time can be optimised according to the existing space.
    • The virus is deactivated in any aerosol particles by the calibrated levels of UV-C light.
      • Research has proved that UV-C radiation can destroy the outer protein coating of Covid-19 and is effective in inactivating the replication.
    • UV-C radiation has been used to disinfect the air in hospitals, laboratories and also in water treatment, but these conventional germicidal treatments are done in unoccupied rooms as they can cause health problems.
    • Ultraviolet Light
      • It is a type of light or radiation naturally emitted by the Sun and covers a wavelength range of 100-400 nm (human visible light ranges from 380–700 nm).
      • UV is divided into three bands:
        • UV-C (100-280 nm): UV-C radiation from man-made sources has been known to cause skin burns and eye injuries.
        • UV-B (280-315 nm): Can only reach the outer layer of skin or epidermis and can cause sunburns and are also associated with skin cancer.
        • UV-A (315-400 nm): Can penetrate the middle layer of skin or the dermis and can cause aging of skin cells and indirect damage to cells’ DNA. 
      • UV-A and UV-B rays from the Sun are transmitted through the atmosphere and all UV-C is filtered by the ozone layer.
    • Safety for Humans
      • The device was specifically developed to disinfect non-living things and the operator must use spectacles with UV-C radiation protection.
      • However, few studies have shown that far-UVC light (207–222 nm) does not harm mammalian skin as it has a very limited range and cannot penetrate through the outer dead-cell layer of human skin or the tear layer in the eye.

    Article 311 of the Constitution

    Recently, the Lt Governor of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) has dismissed 11 government employees for alleged terror links under provisions of Article 311(2)(c) of the Constitution.

    • Article 311 of the Constitution deals with ‘Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State’.
    • Under Article 311(2), no civil servant can be “dismissed or removed or reduced in rank except after an inquiry in which he has been informed of the charges and given a reasonable opportunity of being heard in respect of those charges’’.
    • Subsection (c) of the provision, however, says this clause shall not apply “where the President or the Governor, as the case may be, is satisfied that in the interest of the security of the State it is not expedient to hold such inquiry”.
      • The safeguard of an inquiry also does not apply in cases of conviction on a criminal charge [subsection (a)], or “where the authority…is satisfied that for some reason, to be recorded by that authority in writing, it is not reasonably practicable to hold such inquiry” [subsection (b)].
    • Section 126 of the constitution of the erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir too, while providing safeguards to civil servants/government employees like in Article 311 of the Indian Constitution, laid down exceptions under which a person could be dismissed without holding an inquiry.
    • The only available remedy to terminated employees is to challenge the government’s decision in the High Court.

    Kanwar Yatra

    Recently, the Supreme Court (SC) has allowed Kanwar Yatra with certain restrictions.

    • It is a pilgrimage organised in the Hindu calendar month of Shravana.
    • Saffron-clad Shiva devotees generally walk barefoot with pitchers of holy water from the Ganga or other holy rivers. 
      • In the Gangetic plains, the water is taken from pilgrimage sites such as Haridwar, Gaumukh and Gangotri in Uttarakhand, Sultanganj in Bihar and Prayagraj, Ayodhya or Varanasi from Uttar Pradesh.
    • Devotees carry the pitchers of holy water on their shoulders, balanced on decorated slings known as Kanwars.
    • The water is used by the pilgrims to worship Shivalingas at shrines of importance.
    • The first Kanwar yatra was believed to have been undertaken by Parashuram, the renowned and loyal devotee of Shiva.
    • The Yatra follows some strict rules. Once the kanwar is filled with holy water, the pitchers should never touch the ground.
    • An important festival with similarities to the Kanwar yatra in North India, called the Kavadi festival, is celebrated in Tamil Nadu, in which Lord Muruga is worshipped.
    • Like all religious processions, it exerts tremendous pressure on the law and order machinery and often causes breakdowns.

    (Image Courtesy: IE)

    National AYUSH Mission (NAM)


    Recently, the Union Cabinet has approved the continuation of the National AYUSH Mission (NAM) as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme from 1st April 2021 to 31st March 2026.


    • In the year 2020, the Union Cabinet has approved the proposal to operationalise AYUSH HWCs through States/UTs under the National AYUSH Mission (NAM) in a phased manner by 2023-24.
    • The setting up of AYUSH Hospitals and Dispensaries comes under the purview of respective State/UT Governments because Public Health is a State subject.

    National Ayush Mission (NAM)

    • It is a flagship scheme of the Ministry of AYUSH approved and notified in 2014.
    • It is a centrally sponsored scheme for the development and promotion of the AYUSH system of medicine including Homoeopathy.
    • Under this, the grant-in-aid is being provided to State/UT Governments for the development and promotion of AYUSH as per their proposed State Annual Action Plans (SAAPs)
    • Aims and Objectives: It will create community awareness about lifestyle, diet, Yoga, medicinal plants and provision of medicines for selected conditions as per the strength of AYUSH systems.
      • Upgradation of existing AYUSH dispensaries and Sub Health Centres.
      • To Enhance accessibility to achieve universal health coverage for affordable treatment.
      • To reduce the burden on secondary and tertiary health care facilities
      • To reduce out of pocket expenditure due to the self-care model.
      • To Integrate AYUSH in the implementation of SDG 3, as mandated by NITI Aayog
      • To Ensure a holistic wellness model in target areas.

    Expected outcomes of National AYUSH Mission

    • Better access to AYUSH healthcare services through increased healthcare facilities offering AYUSH services and better availability of medicines and trained manpower.
    • Improvement in AYUSH education through a well-equipped enhanced number of AYUSH Educational institutions.
    • To focus on reducing communicable/non-communicable diseases through targeted public health programmes using AYUSH systems of Healthcare.

    Rebate of State and Central Taxes and Levies (RoSCTL) Scheme 

    Recently, the Government of India approved the extension of the RoSCTL scheme for textiles exporters. 


    • The scheme will continue till March 2024.
    • Notified by: Ministry of Textiles in 2019 
    • Revised guidelines prepared by the Ministry of Textiles in consultation with the Department of Revenue.
    • Duty Credit Scrip
      • Issued to exporters for the value of embedded taxes and levies contained in the exported product. 
      • Exporters can use this scrip to pay basic customs duty for the import of equipment, machinery or any other input.
      • These scrips are tradeable.
    • Benefits:
      • It will enhance the competitiveness of the labour-intensive textiles sector.
      • Garment exporters will continue to get a rebate on Central and State taxes on their outward shipments.
      • It will help boost exports and job creation.
    • The sectors covered will not get benefits under the Remission of Duties and Taxes on Exported Products (RoDTEP) scheme.