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    Polity and Governance

    Hindi Diwas

    Syllabus :GS 2/Indian Constitution/Government Policies & Interventions

    Context 

    • India celebrates Hindi Diwas, also known as Hindi Day, on September 14 every year to commemorate the adoption of Hindi in the Devanagari script as one of the official languages of the nation. 
    • World Hindi Day is celebrated every year on January 10.

    About Hindi Diwas

    • The Constituent Assembly of India accepted Hindi, written in Devanagari script, as the official language of India on September 14, 1949, under Article 343 of the Indian Constitution.
    • The reason behind adopting Hindi as one of the official languages was to simplify administration in a nation with multiple languages
      • Efforts were made by several writers, poets and activists for the adoption of Hindi as the official language.
    • Mahatma Gandhi called Hindi the language of the masses.
      •  The Father of the Nation also talked about making Hindi the national language of the nation.
    • Major Events 
      • Many literary and cultural events are organised on this day across the nation, wherein people celebrate great works of Hindi literature. 
      • Rajbhasha Kirti Puraskar and Rajbhasha Gaurav Puraskar awards are also given to ministries, departments, public sector units (PSUs), nationalised banks and citizens on Hindi Diwas for their contribution and promotion of Hindi.
      • Many schools and colleges organise various literary and cultural programmes, as well as competitions to showcase the importance of the day and raise awareness about the language. 
      • The President of India honours people for their contributions to the language at a function held in Delhi’s Vigyan Bhawan.
    • Significance of Hindi Diwas
      • Hindi Diwas is celebrated every year to promote the Hindi language. In order to promote Hindi, it is advised to use Hindi in place of English in all government offices. 

    Source:PIB

     

    Biodiversity & Ecology

    Pilibhit Tiger Reserve

    Syllabus: GS3/

    In News

    • A herd of elephants from Shuklaphanta National Park damaged the crops of farmers in the Pilibhit Tiger Reserve in Uttar Pradesh.
      • The Shuklaphanta National Park is a protected area in the Terai of the Far-Western Region, Nepal.

     Pilibhit Tiger Reserve

    • Location: 
      • It is located in Pilibhit district, Lakhimpur Kheri District and Bahraich District of Uttar Pradesh.
      • It is situated in the Terai region of northern India.
      • While the northern area of the reserve touches the Indo-Nepal border, the southern edge is connected to Khakhra and Sharda rivers.
    • Diversified ecosystems:
      • It is a mosaic of high sal and teak forests, plantation, grasslands and swamps maintained by periodic flooding from rivers.
      • The major forest types found here include dry deciduous forests, open woodlands, grasslands and riverine covered with thorny woodlands and tall grass.
    • Project Tiger:
      • It was declared a tiger reserve in 2008.
      • It won the TX2 award for doubling the tiger population in just four years from 2014 when it had 25 tigers which went up to 65 in 2018.
    • High Biodiversity and Conservation Value:
      • It represents the only tiger population with the ecological and behavioural adaptations of the tiger unique to the Terai region.
      • It is home to a habitat for over 127 animals, 326 bird species and 2,100 flowering plants.
      • Several endangered species like the pangolin, Bengal Florican, vulture, sloth deer etc are found here.

    Image Courtesy: Researchgate

    Terai Arc Landscape (Terai Meaning Moist Land)

    • It is spread across the Indian states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, and the low-lying hills of Nepal.
    • A strip of undulating former marshland, it stretches from the Yamuna River in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the east.
    • Interspersed with the Tarai is the Bhabar.
      • Bhabar is a region of coarse gravel and shingle deposits supporting sal forests.
    • The landscape boasts of some of India’s most well-known Tiger Reserves and Protected Areas such as:
      •  Corbett Tiger Reserve,
      •  Rajaji National Park,
      •  Dudhwa Tiger Reserve,
      •  Valmiki Tiger Reserve etc.

    Source: Outlook