Daily Current Affairs 13-10-2023

    0
    1878

    Ozone Hole Over Antarctica

    Syllabus: GS1/Geography,GS3/ Environment

    News

    • The European Space Agency Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite has detected a  26 million square kilometer giant hole in the ozone layer.

    What is an Ozone Layer?

    • The ozone layer is a trace gas in the stratosphere, one of the four layers of the Earth’s atmosphere. It is found between 15 to 35 kilometers above Earth.
    • Ozone creation: Ozone is composed of three atoms of Oxygen.The production of ozone in the stratosphere results primarily from the breaking of the chemical bonds within oxygen molecules (O2) by high-energy solar photons. This process, called photodissociation, results in the release of single oxygen atoms, which later join with intact oxygen molecules to form ozone.
    • Good and Bad Ozone: Stratospheric ozone (Good Ozone) is formed naturally through the interaction of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation with molecular oxygen (O2).
      • Tropospheric or ground-level ozone (Bad Ozone), what humans breathe, is formed primarily from photochemical reactions between (VOC & NOX).
    • Significance: It functions as a protective gas shield that absorbs ultraviolet radiation, protecting humans and ecosystems from dangerous amounts of UV radiation causing skin cancers.

    What is the Ozone hole?

    • By 1984, the ozone layer over Antarctica’s Halley Bay research station had lost one-third of its thickness compared to previous decades.
    • The thinning of the ozone layer over Antarctica, came to be known as the ozone hole. The hole was caused by widespread use of chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons.
    • Ozone Depletion: When chlorine and bromine atoms come into contact with ozone in the stratosphere, they destroy ozone molecules. One chlorine atom can destroy over 100,000 ozone molecules before it is removed from the stratosphere. Ozone can be destroyed more quickly than it is naturally created.

    What caused the Ozone hole this year?

    • The size of the ozone hole over Antarctica fluctuates each year. The ozone hole opens up because of the rotation of the Earth causing special winds over the closed landmass of Antarctica. The winds create a mini climate, creating a shield over Antarctica preventing it from mixing with surrounding air. When the winds die down, the hole closes.
    • Scientists believe this year’s big ozone hole could be due to the Hunga-Tonga- Hunga -Ha’apai volcanic eruptions. This eruption sent a lot of water vapor into the stratosphere.The water had an impact on the ozone layer through chemical reactions and changed its heating rate.

    Conventions for Protection of Ozone layer

    • Vienna Convention:  First convention for the protection of the Ozone layer.
      • To promote cooperation among nations by exchanging information on the effects of human activities.
    • Montreal Protocol: Adopted in 1987, on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The landmark multilateral environmental agreement regulates the production and consumption of nearly 100 man-made chemicals referred to as ozone depleting substances (ODS).
    • Kigali Agreement: Around 197 countries, including India, China and the USA, agreed at Kigali to reduce the use of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by roughly 85% of their baselines by 2045, by amending the 1987 Montreal Protocol.

    Know About UV Radiation

    • Shorter wavelengths than visible light, not visible from naked eyes.
    • Classified into three types as per wavelength: UV-A, UV-B and UV-C
    • UV-A: Long-wavelength, 95% of the UV radiation reaching the Earth’s surface, high penetration power.
    • UV-B:  Short-wavelength that reaches the outer layer of your skin (the epidermis),  Absorbed by the Earth’s ozone layer.
    • UV-C: UVC radiation is the highest energy portion of the UV radiation spectrum; Blocked by the ozone layer.

    Source: IE

    The Case for Caste Census in India

    Syllabus: GS1/Population & Associated Issues; Poverty & Developmental Issues; GS2/Government Policies & Interventions

    In News

    • Recently, the demand was made for a nationwide caste census after publication of a caste survey in Bihar.

    More about the news

    • The demand was made after the recent publication of a caste survey in Bihar found that 63% of Bihar’s 13 crore population belong to castes listed under the Extremely Backward Classes (EBC) and Other Backward Classes (OBC) categories.
    • However recently, the Prime Minister has criticised and rejected the demand for a nationwide caste census.

    Bihar’s caste based survey Data highlights

    • About: The State government in Bihar in January 2023 launched a two-phase caste survey in Bihar, stating that detailed information on socio-economic conditions would help create better government policies for disadvantaged groups. 
    • Caste data: Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and Extremely Backward Classes (EBCs) constitute more than 63% of the population of Bihar.
      • The so-called “forward” castes or “General” category is only 15.5% of the population.
      • The data also shows that there are about 20% (2.6 crore) Scheduled Castes (SCs), and just 1.6% (22 lakh) Scheduled Tribes (STs).
    • Socio-economic data: The intersection between class and caste-based deprivation in Indian society is evident in a gamut of socio-economic statistics.
      • The average Monthly Per capita consumption expenditures (MPCE) of Scheduled Tribes (ST), Scheduled Castes (SC) and OBC households in rural areas were, respectively 65%, 73% and 84% of the MPCE of the ‘Others’, i.e. the general category, as per the National Sample Survey (NSS), 2011-12. 
      • In urban areas the average MPCE of ST, SC and OBC households were 68%, 63% and 70% of the general category in 2011-12.

    Other reports on Socio-economic conditions in India

    • Poverty & inequality: NFHS data: The persistence of inequality across caste categories in India can also be seen in the multidimensional poverty estimates based on the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4/2015-16).
      • Sachar Committee report: The report (2006) had estimated that 31% of Muslims were ‘Below Poverty Line’, while the poverty headcount ratio among SCs & STs together was 35%, Hindu OBCs 21% and other Hindus (general category) 8.7%. 
    • Education: The pattern of caste-based deprivation can be clearly seen in official data on education and employment indicators.
      • The general category has a much higher proportion of literates, secondary and high school pass outs, graduates and post-graduates than OBCs, SCs and STs.
    • Employment: In terms of employment status (PLFS 2021-22), over 30% of the workforce in the general category had a regular job, while the proportion of regular or salaried workers among OBCs and SCs was around 20% and among STs just over 12%.
      • In contrast, almost 29% of STs, 38% of SCs and 20% of OBCs were casual labourers, against only 11.2% of the general category. 
      • The proportion of Government employees in the general category is much greater at over 64% in the most qualified and highest paid cohort, i.e. Group A employees. 

    Data suggestions

    • Continuity in disproportionate poverty & deprivation: The disproportionate concentration of poverty among the STs, SCs, OBCs and Muslims in India have remained stable over time.
      • This clearly indicates that discrimination and exclusion based on caste via-a-vis STs, SCs and OBCs as well as religion, particularly with regard to Muslims, have a causal relationship with poverty and deprivation.
    • Disproportionate employment pattern: The data indicates that the informal sector is largely populated with STs, SCs and OBCs while the general category has a disproportionately large share of formal employment.
    • Caste-inequality in education: The persistence of caste-inequality in educational outcomes is reproducing a similar pattern of caste-inequality in skilled, formal employment, even three decades after the official implementation of the Mandal Commission recommendations.
      • The demand for a nationwide caste census has gathered momentum in this backdrop.

    Relevance and need for the caste count

    • A step towards equality:
      • A caste census would help us point out those castes that are not represented in the institutions of this country so that steps towards equality can be established.
      • It would also justify the extension of reservations to various communities.
      • The aim is that every section of society can progress properly.
    • The Last Caste data with the government:
      • last caste census was in 1931 and the government still uses this as a basis to estimate demography and different caste groups. 
      • There have been significant changes in the demography of this country.
    • Data unavailability:
      • The Rohini Commission too, faced difficulties due to the unavailability of data on various communities classified under OBCs.
        • The Commission was set up to examine the issue of sub-categorisation of OBCs.
    • Effective service delivery:
      • A fresh estimate of the population is necessary to ensure more effective delivery of targeted welfare.

    Why are the Caste surveys being criticised?

    • Strengthening caste divisions:
      • Caste wise enumeration of the population was introduced under the British colonial administration in 1881 and continued till the 1931 census. 
      • Independent India’s governments abandoned full caste enumeration on the apprehension that it would strengthen caste divisions and perpetuate the caste system.
        • However, the caste system has persisted and flourished in independent India — even without the caste census — along with its discriminatory and exclusionary consequences, as revealed by official surveys and statistics.
    • Triggering demands of reservation:
      • Opposition to a nationwide caste census has been aired from some quarters on the ground that the revelation of the exact population share of OBCs greater than or equal to 52%, as estimated by the Mandal commission, would trigger demands for enhancing the 27% reservation quota for OBCs. 

    Way ahead

    • With the Supreme Court itself validating reservation quotas beyond the 50% threshold, the demand for expanding OBC reservation beyond the 27% Mandal commission threshold has naturally arisen.
    • Justice Rohini Commission, which was constituted in 2017 to examine the sub-categorisation of OBCs in the Central list, submitted its report in August 2023.
      • The report stated that a nationwide socio-economic caste census is necessary to evolve scientific criteria for such sub-categorisation
      • This would also be necessary for all States, which have their own State-level OBC lists, given the wide variety in caste composition.

    Source: TH

    Global Hunger Index 2023

    Syllabus: GS2/Health, GS3/ Economy, Inclusive Growth

    In News

    • India ranks 111 out of a total of 125 countries in the Global Hunger Index (GHI) 2023.

    What is the Global Hunger Index (GHI)?

    • GHI is a tool for comprehensively measuring and tracking hunger at global, regional, and national levels. GHI scores are based on the values of four component indicators:
      • Undernourishment: the share of the population with insufficient caloric intake.
      • Child stunting: the share of children under age five who have low height for their age, reflecting chronic undernutrition.
      • Child wasting: the share of children under age five who have low weight for their height, reflecting acute undernutrition.
      • Child mortality: the share of children who die before their fifth birthday, partly reflecting the fatal mix of inadequate nutrition and unhealthy environments.
    • Based on the values of the four indicators, a GHI score is calculated on a 100-point scale reflecting the severity of hunger, where 0 is the best possible score (no hunger) and 100 is the worst. 

    Findings of the GHI 2023

    • Global hunger remains too high, and progress on reducing hunger has largely stalled.
      • The share of people globally who are undernourished rose from 7.5 percent in 2017 to 9.2 percent in 2022.
    • South Asia and Africa South of the Sahara each have a GHI score of 27.0, indicating serious hunger.
    • The region with the lowest 2023 GHI score is Europe and Central Asia, whose score of 6.0 is considered low.
    • Six countries are designated as alarming based on their 2023 GHI scores: Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Niger, and Yemen.
    • The countries at the highest level of concern for 2023 are Afghanistan, Haiti, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Yemen, as well as Burkina Faso and Mali.
    • Rates of undernourishment, child stunting, child wasting, and child mortality are all projected to fall short of the targets for 2030 set by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
    • India’s neighbouring countries Pakistan (102th), Bangladesh (81st), Nepal (69th) and Sri Lanka (60th) have fared better than it in the index.
    • India has the highest child wasting rate in the world, at 18.7 percent, reflecting acute undernutrition.
      • The rate of undernourishment in India stood at 16.6 percent and under-five mortality at 3.1 percent.
      • The prevalence of anaemia in women aged between 15 and 24 years stood at 58.1 percent.
    Important Terms
    – Hunger is usually understood to refer to the distress associated with a lack of sufficient calories. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) defines food deprivation, or undernourishment, as the habitual consumption of too few calories to provide the minimum dietary energy an individual requires to live a healthy and productive life.
    Undernutrition goes beyond calories and signifies deficiencies in any or all of the following: energy, protein, and/or essential vitamins and minerals.
    Malnutrition refers more broadly to both undernutrition (problems caused by deficiencies) and overnutrition (problems caused by unbalanced diets that involve consuming too many calories in relation to requirements, with or without low intake of micronutrient-rich foods).

    Initiatives by Government of India to address Hunger

    • Mid Day Meal Programme: It is a flagship programme of the Government of India aiming at enhancing enrolment, retention and attendance and simultaneously improving nutritional levels among children studying in Government, Local Body and Government-aided primary and upper primary school areas across the country.
    • The National Food Security Act, 2013: The Act provides for coverage of upto 75% of the rural population and upto 50% of the urban population for receiving subsidized foodgrains under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), thus covering about two-thirds of the population.
      • The Act also has a special focus on the nutritional support to women and children.
    • Poshan Tracker: The Ministry of Women and Child Development developed and deployed the ‘Poshan Tracker’ ICT Application as an important governance tool.
      • The Poshan Tracker has incorporated WHO’s expanded tables, which provide day-based z-scores, to dynamically determine stunting, wasting, underweight, and obesity status based on a child’s height, weight, gender, and age.
    • The Central Government launched Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY) with the specific purpose of ameliorating the hardships faced by the poor and needy due to economic disruptions caused by the COVID-19 outbreak in the country.
      • The allocation of free food grains under PMGKAY was in addition to normal allocation done under the National Food Security Act (NFSA), 2013. 
    • SakshamAnganwadi and Poshan 2.0 (Mission Poshan 2.0) includes key schemes such as the POSHAN Abhiyaan, Anganwadi Services and Scheme for Adolescent Girls as direct targeted interventions to address the problem of malnutrition in the country.
      • The beneficiaries under the Anganwadi Services scheme are children in the age group of 0-6 years, pregnant women and lactating mothers. Supplementary nutrition is provided to beneficiaries in the form of Hot Cooked Meals at Anganwadi Centres and Take Home Ration (not raw ration).

    Source: TH

    Laws Governing the Conflicts

    Syllabus:GS2/ IR

    News

    • Conflict between Israel and Palestinian forces since militant group Hamas assault have created a huge and rising death toll on both sides.

    Laws Governing the Conflict

    • Geneva Conventions of 1949: These are Internationally accepted rules of armed conflict, which have been ratified by all UN member states.
      • The first Geneva Convention protects wounded and sick soldiers on land during war.
      • The second Geneva Convention protects wounded, sick and shipwrecked military personnel at sea during war.
      • The third Geneva Convention applies to prisoners of war.
      • The fourth Geneva Convention affords protection to civilians, including in occupied territory.
    • Law of Armed Conflict: A series of treaties governs the treatment of civilians, soldiers and prisoners of war in a system collectively known as the “Law of Armed Conflict” or “International Humanitarian Law”. It applies to government forces and organized armed groups.
    • The International Criminal Court (ICC): It is a court of last resort for the prosecution of serious international crimes, including genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. 
    The International Criminal Court (ICC)
    – ICC investigates and, where warranted, tries individuals charged with the gravest crimes of concern to the international community: genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and the crime of aggression. As a court of last resort, it seeks to complement, not replace, national Courts.
    History: Impetus for the court came from the ad hoc international tribunals set up in the 1990s to address the atrocity crimes committed in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda.
    Rome Statute: The court’s founding treaty, the Rome Statute, was adopted in July 1998.The ICC’s founding Rome Statute gives it legal authority to investigate alleged crimes on the territory of its members or by their nationals, when domestic authorities are “unwilling or unable” to do so.
    Members: There are 123 member countries. However many countries never signed the treaty, including China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Iraq, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. The countries which signed the statute, but never ratified it are Egypt, Iran, Israel, Russia, Sudan, Syria, and the United States.

    Source: IE

    Facts In News

    Yeshwant Ghadge

    Syllabus : GS 1/History 

    In News

    • Defence Minister Rajnath Singh paid tributes at the VC Yeshwant Ghadge Sundial Memorial in Montone, Italy.

    About Yeshwant Ghadge

    • He was a soldier of the Mahratta Light Infantry who served in Italy during World War II (1939-1945)
    • He was killed in action fighting on the heights of Upper Tiber Valley .
      • He was not even 23 when he succumbed to German sniper fire in Montone, a commune in the Italian province of Perugia. 
    • He had been in service for at least four years at the time, and had been promoted to the rank of Naik, commanding his own rifle section.
    • He was posthumously awarded Victoria Cross (VC), the UK’s highest military decoration, for his uncommon courage in one of the fiercest battles of the Italian campaign.
    Do you know ?
    – Naik Ghadge laid down his life during World War II’s Italian campaign (1943-45). 
    1. Nazi Germany and Italy, along with Japan, were partners in the war, together known as the Axis Powers.
    2. They fought against the Allies, comprising the Americans, the British (and Commonwealth forces), and the Soviets.
    3. After German expansionism had brought all of Europe under Axis control, the Allies decided to begin their counterattack with the invasion of Italy. 
    4. The Allied forces landed in Sicily in July 1943, and advanced up the Italian mainland. The Fascist Italian regime collapsed almost immediately, but Germans resisted furiously. 
    5. They concentrated their resources along a series of defensive lines running across the Italian mainland, from the Tyrrhennian Sea to the Adriatic Sea.
    India’s role 
    – The Indian Army, then under the British, contributed over 2.5 million men to the Allied war effort. 
    – Indian Soldiers played a central role in the Italian Campaign during the Second World War, wherein more than 50,000 Indian Army soldiers from 4th, 8th and 10th Divisions were involved.
    – Indian soldiers comprised the third largest Allies contingent in Italy, after the British and the Americans, and stayed in the country from 1943 through 1946. 
    – Out of the 20 Victoria Crosses awarded in Italy, six were won by Indian soldiers. 
    – Indian soldiers suffered 23,722 casualties, of which 5,782 Indian soldiers made the supreme sacrifice, and are commemorated in the 40 Commonwealth War Graves spread all over Italy.

    Source:IE

    Poorvottar Sampark Setu Portal

    Syllabus: GS2/ Government policies & intervention

    In News

    • The development of northeastern region (DoNER) ministry has launched the “MDoNER Data Analytics Dashboard” and “Poorvottar Sampark Setu” portal virtually.

    About

    • MDoNER Data Analytics Dashboard: It  has the data of 112 schemes across 55 Departments and Ministries.
      • It will help in (a) Data driven decision making; (b) Ease of operations; (c) Centralized monitoring; (d) Policy level decision tool; and (e) Information integration. It will keep a close watch on NER Aspirational districts, North East border districts and the most backward districts in NER.
    • Poorvottar Sampark Setu  portal: It is a powerful tool designed to streamline and enhance monitoring of  Fortnightly visits of Union Ministers to NER.
      • The portal generates a curated list of Ministers who can be nominated for visit to NER in the upcoming months.
      • ​​After the visit, the Minister can submit their tour reports along with their recommendations online. MDoNER can forward the recommendations to respective line Ministries/Departments/State Governments for quick action, after analyzing the same. 

    Source: PIB

    Global Health Innovation Fellowship

    Syllabus: GS2/ Health

    Context 

    • The  Ministry for Science and Technology launched the Global Health Innovation Fellowship, aimed at promoting Med Tech StartUps and innovators among youth. 

    About

    • The initiative was unveiled in conjunction with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the “Department of Biotechnology (DBT)” and the “World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)”.
    • Aim: 

    To leverage intellectual property, innovation, and medical technology to solve local health challenges globally

    • The partnership will facilitate collaboration, knowledge exchange, and South-South cooperation among young professionals from diverse countries.

    Significance

    • It would strengthen India’s position in the global biotech startup landscape, which significantly contributes to the country’s economic growth and job creation.
      • India currently hosts 4000 biotech startups, with an increase to 10,000 by 2025, making a substantial impact on the nation’s ‘Make in India’ initiatives.
    World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
    – It is the global forum for intellectual property (IP) services, policy, information and cooperation. 
    – The organization, established by a convention signed in Stockholm in 1967, began operations in 1970 and became a specialized agency of the United Nations in December 1974.
    Headquarters: Geneva, SwitzerlandTheir governing bodies and procedures are set out in the WIPO Convention, which established WIPO in 1967.
    Mission: To lead the development of a balanced and effective international IP system that enables innovation and creativity.
    – WIPO also holds a biennial conference, which determines the organization’s budget and programs. More than 170 nongovernmental organizations maintain observer status.

    Source: PIB

    Passport to Earning Initiative

    Syllabus: GS3/Economy, Skill Development

    News

    • On the UN International Day of the Girl Child (11 October 2023), an online programme was organized by UNICEF to commemorate the milestone of one million certifications of its Passport to Earning (P2E) programme. 

    About

    • Passport To Earning (P2E) is an e-learning solution to empower young people with relevant 21st Century Skills and abilities to thrive in school, work and life. 
    • In India, aligned with the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020, P2E provides free access to certificate courses in digital productivity, financial literacy, employability skills, and other in-demand, job-ready skills. 
    • The P2E solution also offers provisions for online, hybrid, and offline learning models.

    Significance

    • The platform has skilled and certified more than one million young people in India in areas of financial literacy and digital productivity. 
    • Aligned with India’s vision to drive progress through ‘Nari Shakti’ (woman power), the program is dedicated to creating pathways for young women to enable their transition from learning to earning through right skills and opportunities.

    Source: PIB

    Indigenous Intelligent Transportation Systems Solutions for Traffic Scenario

    Syllabus: GS-3/Infrastructure, Economy

    Context:  Recently, the Three Indigenously developed technologies have been launched at the 11th Traffic Expo and Smart Mobility Conference.

    • The technologies have been developed under the Intelligent Transportation System Endeavor for Indian Cities initiative of the Meity.

    About the Technologies

    1. The CMOS Sensor-based Camera for Industrial Vision Applications (iViS): Indigenous technology for automated inspection and identification of objects. It supports AI-based applications employing Machine Learning and Deep Learning Techniques.
    2. Thermal Sensor-based Camera (TvITS): AI-powered thermal sensor-based smart vision camera for road traffic applications. It can provide data on stationery as well as on moving objects with high accuracy even in completely dark environments in all weather conditions. 
    3. Online Sucro Crystal Imaging System (OSIS): It is a system developed using the industrial camera for the measurement of crystal size in sugar industries. It is a very important quality parameter that is required by the sugar industries.
    TrafficInfraTech Expo
    – It is the leading platform in India that connects traffic and transport professionals from across the globe. 
    – It is the perfect B2B platform for professionals in the infrastructure, traffic management, safety, smart mobility, and parking industry. 
    – Along with the presence of industry professionals and Government representatives, the Expo offers the perfect blend of business, information sharing, networking, etc.
    Smart Mobility Conference
    – The Smart Mobility conference focuses on future mobility, providing a platform for electric vehicles, connected and autonomous vehicles, high-speed travel modes, sustainable rapid transport, common payment modes, and emerging technologies including IoT, data flow, and cloud services.

    Source: PIB

    Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS)

    Syllabus: GS-3/Economy

    Context

    • The Central Government has launched a nationwide state-of-the-art national survey network of Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS).

    About

    • It is capable of  Precise Location-based service, which is capable of providing centimetre-level positioning services in real-time.
    • The Survey of India has set up more than 1,000 CORS stations across India.
    • In addition to the Geospatial sector, this service will boost navigation and machine control-based solutions in the agriculture, mining, construction, transport, and civil aviation sectors.
    • It will also aid in various scientific studies like upper atmosphere and space weather studies, meteorology and weather forecasting, plate motion, tectonic studies, seismology, and hydrology.
    • Users of the data can subscribe to this service on a monthly or yearly basis. This CORS network is available 24/7 throughout the year.

     Source: PIB

    Saraswati Samman

    Syllabus: Miscellaneous, Awards

    In News

    • Tamil writer Sivasankari was presented with the ‘Saraswati Samman’ 2022 for her book of memoirs Surya Vamsam.

    About

    • Ms. Sivasankari, born in 1942, has a literary career spanning over five decades. She has authored 36 novels, 48 novelettes, 150 short stories, five travelogues, seven collections of essays and three biographies. 
    • Her greatest contribution to Indian literature is her four-volume Knit India Through Literature, a compendium of Indian literature.

    About Saraswati Samman

    • It is  instituted by the KK Birla Foundation, carries a plaque, a citation, and a cash prize of ₹15 lakh. 
    • It is given annually for outstanding literary works in 22 Indian languages in the last 10 years and is among the highest recognitions in the field of Indian literature.
    • The selection follows a rigorous three-tier process leading up to a final decision by Chayan Parishad currently headed by former Supreme Court judge, justice Arjan Kumar Sikri.
    • Besides the Saraswati Samman, the Vyas Samman and the Bihari Puraskar are other literary awards instituted by the foundation.

    Source: TH

    Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI 5.0)

    Syllabus :GS 2/Health 

    In News

    Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI 5.0) will conclude all 3 rounds on 14th October 2023.

    • All States/UTs except Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Punjab would conclude all the three rounds of IMI 5.0 campaign.
    Do you know ?
    – Intensified Mission Indradhanush was implemented in 2017-18
    – Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 4.0 was conducted in 416 high-focus districts across India in 2022. 

    About Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI 5.0)

    • It is the flagship routine immunization campaign of the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
    • It ensures that routine immunization services reach the missed-out and dropped out children and pregnant women across the country. 
    • This year, for the first time the campaign is being conducted across all the districts in the country and includes children up to 5 years of age (Previous campaigns included children up to 2 years of age).
    • Special focus is on improvement of Measles and Rubella vaccination coverage with the aim of Measles & Rubella elimination by 2023 and use of U-WIN digital platform for Routine Immunization in pilot mode across all districts in the country.

    Objectives 

    • IMI 5.0 campaign aims to enhance immunization coverage for all vaccines provided under the Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) as per the National Immunization Schedule (NIS). 

    Mission Indradhanush (MI) 

    • It is a special catch-up campaign under the Universal Immunization Program (UIP), conducted in the areas of low immunization coverage to vaccinate all the children and pregnant women left out or dropped out from Routine Immunization. 
    • It was launched by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) in December 2014 as a special drive to vaccinate all unvaccinated and partially vaccinated children under UIP.
      • Since 2014, 11 phases of Mission Indradhanush have been completed across the country. 
      • 12th phase is currently ongoing, a total of 5.06 crore children and 1.25 crore pregnant women have been cumulatively vaccinated till date under the campaign.

    Source: PIB

    Vaccine Trials on Stray Dogs

    Syllabus: GS2/Governance

    In News

    • The Committee for Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CCSEA) has withdrawn until further orders its recommendation to use stray dogs in vaccine trials.

    About

    • Concerns Raised by PETA: Reliance on tests using stray dogs and other animals to predict human responses to vaccines, drugs, and treatments is scientifically unsound and deeply troubling on ethical grounds.
      • PETA India also pointed out that the recommendation contradicted policies adopted by other countries, such as the EU, UK, US, and Australia.

    About CCSEA

    • It is a statutory Committee of the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying (DAHD), Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying (MoFAH&D) constituted under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (PCA) Act, 1960. 
    • It is duty bound to take all such measures as may be necessary to ensure that animals are not subjected to unnecessary pain or suffering before, during or after performance of experiments on them. 
    • For this purpose, the Committee formulated the Breeding of and Experiments on Animals (Control & Supervision) Rules, 1998 (amended in 2001 & 2006) to regulate the experimentation on animals. 

    Source: TH