Saraswati River


    In Context 

    • The critical role of River Saraswati for Indian Civilization was highlighted during the first day of the 25th National Youth Festival 2022


    • The National Youth Festival is aimed at shaping the minds of India’s youth and transforming them into a “united force for nation-building.” 
    • It is one of the biggest exercises in social cohesion and intellectual and cultural integration. It aims to bring diverse cultures of India and integrate them into a united thread of ‘Ek Bharat, Shreshtha Bharat’,
    •  It is celebrated on the birth anniversary of Swami Vivekananda.

    Saraswati River

    • The river originated from Kapal Tirith in the Himalayas in the west of Kailash, flowed southward to Mansarovar and then turned towards the west.
    • The river flowed through Haryana, Rajasthan and North Gujarat. 
    • It also flowed through Pakistan before meeting the Western Sea through the Rann of Kutch and was approximately 4,000 km in length.
    • The river had two branches: western and eastern. 
      • The Himalayan-born Satluj “of the PAST”, which flowed through the channels of present-day Ghaggar-Patialiwali rivulets, represents the western branch of the ancient river.
      • On the other hand, Markanda and Sarsuti represented the western branch of Saraswati, known as Tons-Yamuna.
    • The confluence of the branches was near Shatrana, 25 km south of Patiala. And suddenly, it flows across the desert (Rann of Kutch) and meets the Gulf of the western sea.

    Historical Evidence of the Saraswati River

    • The Sarasvati River is one of the main Rigvedic rivers mentioned in the scripture Rig Veda and later Vedic and post-Vedic texts.

    Image Courtesy: Hans India

    • Book 6 of the Rig Veda includes a hymn called the ‘Nadistuti Sukta’, which sings praises of the Saraswati as being “perfect mother, unsurpassed river, supreme goddess”.
    • For 2000 years, between 6000 and 4000 B.C, the Saraswati flowed as a great river

    Source: PIB