India Japan 2+2 Dialogue


    In News

    • The 2+2 Dialogue was recently held between the External Affairs Minister/Foreign Affairs Minister and Defence Ministers of India and Japan.

    More about the news

    • Defence, security and global order:
      • India and Japan agreed to uplift the security and defence cooperation, including holding the first Air Force fighter exercise at the second 2+2 Dialogue
        • A key outcome of this round of talks was the agreement to launch the Joint Service Staff talks between the Japan Joint Staff and the Indian Integrated Defence Staff.
        • The four ministers also welcomed the participation of Japan, for the first time, in the “MILAN” multilateral naval exercise organised by the Indian Navy
      • Respecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of nations, both nations reaffirmed their commitment to a rules-based global order.
    • Chinese aggression:
      • To dissuade an aggressive China, India extended its affirmation to Japan’s plans of expanding and modernising its defence forces, including “counter strike capabilities”.
      • In a statement, Japan expressed its resolve to examine all options necessary for national defence.
    • Quad:
      • India and Japan along with the US and Australia being members of the Quad, are considered a strategic group by some against China’s growing influence in the Indo-Pacific region.


    • Taiwan issue:
      • The meeting took place against the backdrop of heightened tensions across the Taiwan Strait 
      • During the recent face off, China lobbed five missiles in Japan’s exclusive economic zone, prompting Japan to describe it as “a serious problem that affects our national security and the safety of our citizens”.
    • Global issues:
      • The 2+2 dialogue also coincided with North Korea passing a new law declaring its irreversible status as a nuclear weapons state
      • This, together with growing Chinese belligerence and its expanding nuclear arsenal, erodes Japan’s security.
    • Joint Service Staff talks:
      • Agreement to launch the Joint Service Staff talks is a significant step towards enhancing cooperation between the three services as well as the Coast Guard on both sides in an integrated manner.
      • It further builds on existing bilateral and multilateral exercises including “Dharma Guardian” (ground forces), “JIMEX” and “Malabar” (navies), and an earlier decision to conduct the inaugural India-Japan fighter exercise between the two air forces.
    • MILAN 2022 & Indo-Pacific theatre:
      • MILAN 2022 witnessed the first-ever participation by not just Japan but all the Quad nations, as well as France and South Korea
      • It was held under the Eastern Naval Command for the first time instead of the Andaman and Nicobar Command.
        • This locational shift points to a growing willingness on the part of India, Japan and like-minded partners to recast existing and newer forms of cooperation to meet the requirements of a nascent Indo-Pacific theatre.

    India- Japan Relations 

    • Historical:
      • The friendship between India and Japan has a long history rooted in spiritual affinity and strong cultural and civilization ties dating back to the visit of Indian monk Bodhisena in 752 AD
    • Beginning of contemporary relationship:
      • India and Japan established diplomatic relations in 1952
        • Japan was among the few countries that bailed India out of the balance of payment crisis in 1991.
      • The Act East Forum, established in 2017, aims to provide a platform for India-Japan collaboration under the rubric of India’s “Act East Policy” and Japan’s “Free and Open Indo-Pacific Vision”.
    • Projects and Investments: 
      • Recently, India and Japan signed four agreements under which Tokyo is to support health care projects funded under the Grant Assistance for Grassroots Projects (GGP) scheme in India.
        • The “Grant Assistance for Grassroots Projects (GGP)” supports development projects designed to meet the diverse basic human needs of the people in developing countries.
      • Japan has invested 1,600 crores in development projects across India’s northeastern states and is also working closely with India on infrastructure projects in third countries such as Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
      • India and Japan also signed the Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) for reciprocal provision of supplies and services between their defence forces.
    • Economic and Commercial relations:
      • Japan’s interest in India is increasing due to a variety of reasons including India’s large and growing market and its resources, especially the human resources.
      • India’s primary exports to Japan have been 
        • petroleum products, chemicals, elements, compounds, non-metallic mineral ware, fish & fish preparations, metalliferous ores & scrap, clothing & accessories, iron & steel products, textile yarn, fabrics and machinery etc.
      • India’s primary imports from Japan are 
        • machinery, electrical machinery, iron and steel products, plastic materials, non-ferrous metals, parts of motor vehicles, organic chemicals, manufacturers of metals, etc.
    • Defence:
      • India-Japan Defence and Security partnership has evolved over the years and forms an integral pillar of the bilateral ties. 
      • In 2008, both countries issued “the Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation between Japan and India“. 
      • Bilateral exercises: 
        • India and Japan defence forces organise a series of bilateral exercises namely, JIMEX, SHINYUU Maitri, and Dharma Guardian. 
        • Both countries also participate in the Malabar exercise with the USA.
    • Science & Technology:
      • Bilateral S&T cooperation was formalised through an Inter-Governmental Agreement signed in 1985. 
      • India-Japan Digital Partnership (IJDP) was launched in 2018 furthering existing areas of cooperation as well as new initiatives within the scope of cooperation in S&T/ICT, focusing more on “Digital ICT Technologies”
      • Recent initiatives include the establishment of three India-Japan Joint Laboratories in the area of ICT (AI, IoT and Big Data); Initiation of the DST-JSPS Fellowship Programme for young researchers.
    • Healthcare:
      • India’s AYUSHMAN Bharat Programme and Japan’s ASHWIN, both sides had been consulting with each other to identify projects to build the narrative of AHWIN for AYUSHMAN Bharat.

    About QUAD

    • It is also known as Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD).
    • Japanese PM Shinzo Abe mooted the idea of Quadrilateral Security Dialogue in 2007.
    • QUAD is an informal group of India, the US, Japan and Australia.
    • It is a strategic dialogue with the objective to ensure a free, open, inclusive and prosperous Indo Pacific.
    • Shared values between the nations are:
      • Political democracies
      • Market economies
      • Pluralistic societies

    Source: TH