Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)

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    In News 

    •  A negative Indian Ocean dipole event has been declared, increasing the chances of above-average rainfall over much of Australia.

    About  Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)

    • It is defined by the difference in sea surface temperature between two areas (or poles, hence a dipole) – a western pole in the Arabian Sea (western Indian Ocean) and an eastern pole in the eastern Indian Ocean south of Indonesia. 
    • In scientific terms, the IOD is a coupled ocean and atmosphere phenomenon, similar to ENSO but in the equatorial Indian Ocean.
    • It is thought that the IOD has a link with ENSO events through an extension of the Walker Circulation to the west and associated Indonesian throughflow (the flow of warm tropical ocean water from the Pacific into the Indian Ocean). 
    • The IOD affects the climate of Australia and other countries that surround the Indian Ocean Basin, and is a significant contributor to rainfall variability in this region.

    Positive event linked to it 

    • warmer sea surface temperatures in the western Indian Ocean relative to the east
    • easterly wind anomalies across the Indian Ocean and less cloudiness to Australia’s northwest
    • less rainfall over southern Australia and the Top End.

    Negative event:

    • cooler sea surface temperatures in the western Indian Ocean relative to the east
    • winds become more westerly, bringing increased cloudiness to Australia’s northwest
    • more rainfall in the Top End and southern Australia

    Source:DTE