Global Employment Trends for Youth 2022

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    • Recently, the Global Employment Trends for Youth 2022 report was released by the International Labour Organisation.

    Major Highlights of the report 

    • Working-hour and Employment losses
      • India experienced severe working-hour and employment losses in 2020 and 2021 and Indian youth employment deteriorated in 2021 compared to 2020.
    • The recovery in youth employment is still lagging globally
      • The report confirms that COVID-19 has hurt young people more than any other age group.
    • Worsened the labour market 
      • It finds that the pandemic has worsened the numerous labour market challenges facing those aged between 15 and 24 years.
      • Youngsters in this age group experienced a much higher percentage loss in employment than adults since early 2020.
    • Global unemployment
      • The total global number of unemployed youth is estimated to reach 73 million in 2022, a slight improvement from 2021 (75 million), but still six million above the pre-pandemic level of 2019.
      • Unemployment rate of young people in the Asia and Pacific region is projected to reach 14.9% in 2022. 
    • Youth employment participation
      • In India the youth employment participation rate declined by 0.9 percentage points over the first nine months of 2021 relative to its value in 2020, while it increased by 2 percentage points for adults over the same time period.
      • The situation is particularly severe for very young people aged 15-20 years.
    • School closures in India
      • In India, the report added that school closures lasted 18 months and among the 24 crore school-going children, only 8% of such children in rural areas and 23% in urban areas had adequate access to online education. 
      • In India, 92% of children on average lost at least one foundational ability in language and 82% lost at least one foundational ability in mathematics. 

    Issues/ Challenges stated by the report 

    • Unequal access to online resources: Given the deeply unequal access to online resources in developing countries, children from socio-economically disadvantaged families, which are the large majority, had almost no access to education. 
    • Learning regression: It said school closures not only prevented new learning, but also led to the phenomenon of learning regression, that is children forgetting what they had learned earlier.
    • India has very low youth female labour market participation and Indian young women experienced larger relative employment losses than young men in 2021 and 2022.
      • Young Indian men account for 16% of young men in the global labour market, while the corresponding share for young Indian women is just 5%. 
    • Less paid: The study found out that teachers in non-state schools are often paid significantly less than those in state schools. 
      • Teachers in low-fee private schools in India, Kenya, Nigeria and Pakistan are paid between one eighth and one half of what their counterparts in the state sector receive.  
    • Informal sector: domestic work is a highly informal sector in India, and wages are extremely low and young women and girls are vulnerable to abuse. 
      • Reports of abuse suffered by young domestic workers are common, including verbal and physical abuse, and sexual exploitation.  

    Way Forward/ Suggestions 

    • Quality education and training opportunities are required to create decent jobs, especially in green, blue and digital economies.
    • The report appreciated the MGNREGA and said it has played an important role in providing paid employment, particularly for women, but also in carbon sequestration because of the Act’s focus on natural resources, such as land, water and trees, which provide adaptation benefits. 

    International Labour Organisation (ILO) 

    • It is a specialised agency of the United Nations.
    • It is the only tripartite U.N. agency since 1919.
      • The unique tripartite structure brings together governments, employers and workers of 187 member States, to set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men.
    • Aim: To promote rights at work, encourage decent employment opportunities, enhance social protection and strengthen dialogue on work-related issues.
    • History: Established in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League of Nations.
      • Became the first affiliated specialised agency of the United Nations in 1946.
    • India is a founder member of the ILO.
    • Headquarter: Geneva, Switzerland.
    • Received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1969:
      • For improving peace among classes
      • Pursuing decent work and justice for workers
      • Providing technical assistance to other developing nations
    • Flagship Reports of ILO are:
      • Global Wage Report
      • World Employment and Social Outlook (WESO)
      • World Employment and Social Outlook
      • World Social Protection Report
      • World of Work Report

    Source: TH