Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC)

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    • India emphasised on following the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) at the UNSC meeting on Ukraine. 
      • The meeting came after a request from Russia, who claimed that the US is involved in bio weapon manufacture in the war-torn country.

    Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC)

    • About:
      • Came into force in 1975 and the Convention was negotiated by the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament in Geneva, Switzerland.
    • Aim:
      • Treaty prohibits the development, production, acquisition, transfer, stockpiling and use of biological weapons.
    • Signatories:
      • It has 183 signatories, including the United States, Russia, and Ukraine.
      • India has signed and ratified this convention.
    • Significance:
      • It was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning an entire category of weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
      • The BWC is a key element in the international community’s efforts to address WMD proliferation and it has established a strong norm against biological weapons.
      • A total of eight Review Conferences have taken place since the first one in 1980.
    • Issues:
      • There is no implementation body of the BTWC, allowing for blatant violations as seen in the past.
      • This conference takes place every five years to assess and try to improve upon the convention’s implementation, however, it has no provisions to make sure countries are abiding by its terms.

    Source: AIR