Nisar Mission


    In Context

    • The NISAR satellite is all set to arrive in India as recently, the satellite got a send-off ceremony at NASA.


    • The SUV-size satellite will be shipped to India in a special cargo container flight later in February 2023 for a possible launch in 2024 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Andhra Pradesh.

    Key Facts about NISAR

    • NISAR is an Earth-observation satellite  that stands for (NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar).
    • Developed by:
      • It is Jointly developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Indian Space Research Organisation under a partnership agreement signed in 2014.
    • Function:
      • It will scan the globe every 12 days over the course of its three-year mission of imaging the Earth’s land, ice sheets and sea ice to give an unprecedented view of the planet.
    • Features:
      • The 2,800 kilogram satellite is a dual-frequency imaging radar satellite.
      • While NASA has provided the L-band radar, GPS, a high-capacity solid-state recorder to store data, and a payload data subsystem, ISRO has provided the S-band radar, the GSLV launch system and spacecraft.
    • Another important component of the satellite is its large 39-foot stationary antenna reflector. 
      • The reflector will be used to focus “the radar signals emitted and received by the upward-facing feed on the instrument structure.

    Objectives of the Mission

    • NISAR will observe subtle changes in Earth’s surfaces, helping researchers better understand the causes and consequences of such phenomena. 
    • It will spot warning signs of natural disasters, such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and landslides. 
    • The satellite will also measure groundwater levels, track flow rates of glaciers and ice sheets, and monitor the planet’s forest and agricultural regions, which can improve our understanding of carbon exchange.
    • ISRO will use NISAR for a variety of purposes including agricultural mapping, and monitoring of glaciers in the Himalayas, landslide-prone areas and changes in the coastline.
    • By using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), NISAR will produce high-resolution images
      • SAR is capable of penetrating clouds and can collect data day and night regardless of the weather conditions.