Facts in News



    Facts in News

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) 

    • It is one of a group of highly reactive gases known as oxides of nitrogen or nitrogen oxides (NOx).
      • Other nitrogen oxides include nitrous acid and nitric acid.
    • The annual maximum NO2 exposure recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) is 21.3 parts per billion.
    • Source
      • Burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil, gas and diesel at high temperatures.
      • Emissions from cars, trucks and buses, power plants, and off-road equipment.
    • Effects
      • Irritates the human respiratory system & reduces lung function.
      • Interacts in the atmosphere to form acid rain, which harms sensitive ecosystems.
      • Makes the air hazy and difficult to see though.
      • Contributes to nutrient pollution in coastal waters.
    • Reduction Measures
      • Identification of areas with NO2 exposure.
      • Plans to reduce its amount in air.
      • National and regional rules to reduce emissions.
    • Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY)
      • It is a government scheme to distribute Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) connections to women of below poverty line families, reducing indoor exposure to biomass.

    Beyond Visual Line of Sight (BVLOS) 

    • It relates to the operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and drones at distances outside the normal visible range of the pilot.
    • BVLOS flights are mainly performed in infrastructure inventory, for monitoring large areas and creating orthophoto maps.
    • Benefits
      • Enables a drone to cover far greater distances.
      • Numerous applications and cost-effective.
      • Enables service providers to conduct complex drone operations and facilitate drones to fly without any human interference.
    • The Ministry of Civil Aviation has granted conditional exemption from Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Rules, 2021 to 20 entities to conduct BVLOS experimental flights.
      • These will help create a framework for future drone deliveries and other major applications using drones.

    Putola Nach

    • It is a traditional string puppet theatre from Assam in North East India.  
    • It is also called Putola bhaona due to its ancient link (16th century) with bhaona theatre.
    •  Usually, It is used to perform scenes from the epics such as Ramayana or Mahabharata.

    • These dolls are 1.5 metres tall and are made of hollow wood or bamboo.
      • Their heads are made of terracotta.
    • Musical Instruments used in performing the art are dhol, harmonium, kansi, double reed wind instrument and a bell metal plate beaten with a stick.
    • There were three different styles of string puppetry in Assam. They were Kalaigaon in Northern Assam, Barpeta-Nalbari in western Assam and Majuli “island” in eastern Assam.

    Cinco de Mayo 

    • Cinco de Mayo (May the fifth in Spanish) is an annual joyous celebration  of Mexico and the United States.
    • The day  marked Mexico’s military victory on its soil over French forces in 1862  at the Battle of Puebla during the Franco-Mexican War.
    • The day  falls on May 5 in 2021, also known as Battle of Puebla Day. 
      • In Puebla(over 100 km ahead of Mexico City), Cinco de Mayo is celebrated annually with speeches, parades, and by reenacting episodes of the 1862 battle.
      • In the US, in the mid-20th century, the celebration became a way for immigrants from Mexico to express pride in their heritage. 

    Historical  context

    • In the 1860s, Mexico had been severely weakened by lengthy wars over the previous two decades — the Mexican-American War (1846-48) and the internal Reform War (1858-61). 
    • As a result, in 1861, President Benito Juárez announced a temporary moratorium of two years on repaying Mexico’s foreign debts.
    • In response, troops from Britain, Spain, and France invaded Mexico, demanding reimbursement. 
    • By April 1862, Britain and Spain negotiated with Mexico and withdrew, but France, which at the time was led by Emperor Napoleon III, decided to establish an empire in Mexican territories with the support of the local landowning classes. 
    • At Puebla, a poorly equipped and outnumbered Mexican force decisively defeated the advancing French troops on May 5, 1862.

    Section 142 of the Social Security Code – 2020

    • Section 142 of the Social Security Code, 2020 has been notified by the Ministry of Labour & Employment covering the applicability of Aadhar.
    • It aims to establish the identity of an employee or an unorganised worker or any other person through Aadhaar number for seeking benefits and availing services under the Code.
      •  The main purpose  is to facilitate database creation, mainly covering people in informal sectors like migrant workers.
    • However, the delivery of services under various social security schemes would not be denied due to non-submission of Aadhaar.
    • Under Social Security Code 2020:
    • The central government can apply the Code to any establishment (subject to size-threshold).
    • Both the central and the state govt will set up a Social Security Fund for unorganized workers.
    • The code provides for the establishment of a national and various state-level boards for administering schemes for unorganised sector workers. 
    • For the first time, provisions of social security will also be extended to agricultural workers also.

    Casirivimab and Imdevimab

    • They are human immunoglobulin G-1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibodies produced by recombinant DNA technology.
    • The antibody cocktail (Casirivimab and Imdevimab) is seen as useful for high-risk patients before their condition worsens.
    • Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-made proteins that mimic the immune system’s ability to fight off harmful pathogens such as viruses.
    • Casirivimab and imdevimab significantly shortened the duration of symptoms by four days during the clinical trials.
    • Casirivimab and imdevimab are monoclonal antibodies that are specifically directed against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2.
    • The Central Drugs Standards Control Organisation (CDSCO) has provided an emergency use authorisation (EUA) for casirivimab and imdevimab for the treatment of mild to moderate Covid-19 in India.
      • CDSCO is the central drug authority for discharging functions assigned to the Central Government under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act.