Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0 & AMRUT 2.0


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    • Recently, the Prime Minister has launched the second phases of Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U) and Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT).

    Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U)

    • About:
      • It was announced by the PM on 15th August 2014 but the mission was formally launched on 2nd October 2014.
    • Objectives:
      • Eradication of open defecation in all statutory towns. 
      • 100% scientific management of municipal solid waste in all statutory towns.
      • Effecting behaviour change through Jan Andolan.
    • Performance of SBM-U:
      • Revolutionized the sanitation space in urban India, by providing 100% access to sanitation facilities in urban India.
      • Over 70 lakh households, community and public toilets have been built, which are providing safe and dignified sanitation solutions for all.
        • Access to sanitation facilities is further enhanced through digital innovation such as SBM Toilets on Google Maps.
      • Under this, Urban India was declared open defecation free in 2019 following which the Mission has propelled urban India on the path of sustainable sanitation, with over 3,000 cities and over 950 cities being certified ODF+ and ODF++ respectively. 
      • Digital enablements such as Swachhata App, the digital grievance redressal platform introduced by MoHUA in 2016, has reinvented the way in which citizen grievance redressal is managed. 
        • The App has resolved over 2 crore citizen complaints to date with active engagement from citizens. MoHUA has recently launched the revamped version of Swachhata App 2.0.
    • Features of SBM-U 2.0:
      • Ensuring complete access to sanitation facilities to serve additional populations migrating from rural to urban areas in search of employment and better opportunities over the next 5 years (through more construction of public toilets).
      • Complete liquid waste management in cities in less than 1 lakh population, this will ensure that all wastewater is safely contained, collected, transported and treated so that no wastewater pollutes our water bodies.
      • Material Recovery Facilities, and waste processing facilities will be set up, with a focus on phasing out single-use plastic. 
      • All statutory towns will become at least ODF+; and all cities with <1 lakh population ODF++. Systems and processes will be in place so that all waste water is safely treated and optimally reused and no untreated wastewater pollutes water bodies.
      • Regarding Solid Waste Management, it is expected that all cities will achieve at least 3-star Garbage Free certification under SBM-U 2.0.
      • Special focus will be put on the well-being of sanitation and informal waste workers, through the provision of personal protective equipment and safety kits, linkages with government welfare schemes along with their capacity building.

    Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)

    • Nodal Ministry: 
      • Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA)
    • About: 
      • AMRUT was launched as the first water-focused Mission in 2015, with a total Mission outlay of ?1,00,000 crore.
    • Objective of AMRUT 2.0: 
      • To provide 100% coverage of water supply to all households in around 4,700 ULBs.
    • Features:
      • Upscaling from 500 cities covered under AMRUT with 1 lakh+ population to all 4,372 cities, covering 100% urban India.
      • Notification on property tax related to circle rates & increasing periodically, and user charges related to O&M costs is a mandatory reform under AMRUT 2.0.
      • Incentive-based reforms like Rejuvenation of water bodies in cities; Reducing non-revenue water to 20%; Rainwater harvesting in all institutional buildings; Reuse of 20%treated wastewater; Reuse of wastewater to meet 40% industrial water demand.
      • Pey Jal Survekshan will be conducted in cities to ascertain the equitable distribution of water, reuse of wastewater and mapping of water bodies w.r.t. quantity and quality of water through a challenging process.
    • Significance:  
      • This will promote the circular economy of water through the formulation of the City Water Balance Plan for each city, focusing on recycle/reuse of treated sewage, rejuvenation of water bodies and water conservation.
      • The digital economy will be promoted through being a Paperless Mission
      • The Mission seeks to promote AatmaNirbhar Bharat through encouraging Startups and Entrepreneurs. 
      • This reform has helped improve India’s rank in Ease of Doing Business in construction permits to 27 in Doing Business Report (DBR) 2020 of World Bank from 181 in 2018.

    Source: PIB