World Cancer Day

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    In News

    • World Cancer Day is observed every year worldwide on February 4 to raise awareness, and reduce the global impact of cancer.

    Key Facts

    • Theme 2022: Close the Care Gap
    • National Cancer Awareness Day: 7th November 

    What is Cancer?

    • It is a disease that can start in almost any organ or tissue of the body when abnormal cells grow uncontrollably
      • Spread other parts of the body (metastasizing).
    • These cells may form tumours, which are lumps of tissue. Tumours can be cancerous or non-cancerous (benign)
    • Oncology is the medical branch that diagnoses, treats and researches cancer cells.
    • Types: Categories of cancers that begin in specific types of cells like Carcinoma (skin), Sarcoma (connective tissues), Leukemia (Bone Marrow) etc.
    • Major Causes: Genetics, Tobacco, Diet, Radiation & Environment. 
    • Treatment: Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, Bone marrow transplant etc.

    Cancer Burden in India

    • National Cancer Registry Programme Report 2020: Cancer cases in India are likely to increase to 15.6 lakhs by 2025 — a 12% increase from currently estimated cases.
    • Globally, cancer cases increased 21% and deaths 26% from 2010 to 2019. Oral cancer is the most prevalent cancer.
    • WHO: Second leading cause of death globally and in 2018, 18 million cases globally, of which 1.5 million were in India alone.

    Government Initiatives

    • International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Specialized cancer agency of the WHO.
    • SDG: To achieve a one-third reduction in cancer-related deaths by 2030.
    • National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) under NHM.
    • National Health Policy & National Tobacco Control Programme.
    • Government programmes: Ayushman Bharat, Swasthya Bharat, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Poshan Abhiyaan and Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana, FSSAI Labelling.
    • India creates the world’s 1st Database of Genomic Variants of Oral Cancer ‘dbGENVOC’.
    • National Cancer Grid (NCG) is a network of major cancer centres.

     Source: LM