Daily Current Affairs – 03-07-2023

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    DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER / DEPUTY CHIEF MINISTER

    Syllabus: GS2/Indian Polity

    In News

    NCP leader Ajit Pawar was sworn in as Deputy Chief Minister of Maharashtra.

    Present Scenario in States

    • At present, twelve states in the country have Deputy CMs. 
    • Recently, TS Singhdeo was also appointed as Deputy Chief Minister of Chhattisgarh.
    • Chief Minister Y S Jagan Mohan Reddy of Andhra Pradesh has as many as five Deputies.

    View of Constitution

    • Neither Article 163 nor Article 164 of the constitution mentions the post of Deputy Chief Minister.
    •  Article 163(1) of the Constitution says “there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister at the head to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise oF his functions”.
    •  Article 164 (1) says “the Chief Minister shall be appointed by the Governor and the other Ministers shall be appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister”, mentions a Deputy Chief Minister.

    Reason

    • Deputy Chief Ministers are appointed due to a political compromise that happens when no single leader commands unchallenged authority in the party or coalition government in power.

    History of Deputy CMs

    • The first Deputy CM in India was Anugrah Narayan Sinha, who remained Deputy CM in Bihar until his death in 1957.
    • Deputy CMs were seen in more states, especially after the reduction of the Congress’s near-total dominance on national politics after 1967.

    Status

    • The post of Deputy CM is understood as being equivalent in rank to that of Cabinet Minister (in the state).
    • The Deputy CM enjoys the same pay and perks as a Cabinet Minister.

    Deputy Prime Minister

    • India has also seen several Deputy Prime Ministers — a post that was first held by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel when Jawaharlal Nehru was Prime Minister.
    • Devi Lal’s appointment as Deputy PM in V P Singh’s government in 1989 was challenged in court on the ground that “the oath administered to him as such was not in accordance with the prescription of the Constitution”.
    • In K M Sharma vs Devi Lal and Ors (1990), the Supreme Court upheld Devi Lal’s appointment “in the view that Devi Lal is just a Minister like other members of the Council of Ministers. The description of him as Deputy Prime Minister does not confer on him any powers of the Prime Minister.

    List of Deputy Prime Minister

    Deputy PM

    Tenure

    Prime Minister

    Vallabhbhai Patel

    1947 – 1950

    Jawaharlal Nehru

    Morarji Desai

    1967 – 1969

    Indira Gandhi

    Charan Singh

    1979

    Morarji Desai

    Jagjivan Ram

    1979

    Morarji Desai

    Yashwantrao Chavan

    1979 – 1980

    Charan Singh

    Devi Lal

    1989 – 1991

    Vishwanath Pratap Singh

    and Chandra Shekhar

    Lal Krishna Advani

    2002 – 2004

    Atal Bihari Vajpayee

    Source: IE

    Pangong Tso lake : India-China conflict 

    Syllabus :GS 2/International Relations/GS3/Internal Security

    In News

    India and  China are  building  infra on the north bank of Pangong lake.

    About  Pangong Lake,

    • It derives its name from the Tibetan word, “Pangong Tso”, which means “high grassland lake”.
    • It is one of the most famous lakes in Leh Ladakh.
    • It is situated at a height of almost 4,350m and It is the world’s highest saltwater lake
    • Extending to almost 160km, one-third of the Pangong Lake lies in India and the other two-thirds in China.
    • It is also known to change colours, appearing blue, green and red at different times. 

    Importance 

    • The Line of Actual Control (LAC) mostly passes on the land, but Pangong Tso is a unique case where it passes through the water as well. 
      • The points in the water at which the Indian claim ends and Chinese claim begins are not agreed upon mutually.
      • Most of the clashes between the two armies occur in the disputed portion of the lake. 
    •  The region south of the lake is strategically important for both countries.The area, known as the Chushul approach, is one of the few sectors that can be used as launchpads for an offensive, because of the plains.
    • The brackish water lake freezes over in winter, and becomes ideal for ice skating and polo. 
      • The lake freezes during the winter, allowing some vehicular movement on it as well.
    • The south bank of Pangong leads to the Kailash range and to the Chushul sector.
      • The Chushul sector is critical as it lends room for tank manoeuvres owing to its flat terrain. 
      • This was the site of pitched battles during the 1962 war and the heroic battle by 13 Kumaon, led by Major Shaitan Singh at Rezang La, the mountain pass on the southeastern approach to the Chushul Valley. 
      • Over the years, India has strengthened its defences on the south bank in addition to deployment of tanks. 
      • For India, Pangong is critical to maintain hold on the Chushul Valley.

    Present Status 

    • Disengagement of armies from both sides of Pangong Tso took place in February of 2021, and from PP-17 in the Gogra-Hot Springs area in August of the same year, besides Galwan after the violent clash in 2020.
      • The two armies continue to maintain combat deployment at the LAC in Eastern Ladakh.
    • As over one lakh troops continue to be deployed on either side of the lake since 2020, the Corps Commander-level talks remain gridlocked over two remaining friction points at Depsang and Demchok. 
      • At both locations, the Chinese side has been blocking Indian patrols, while adding that there has been some climb-down on Chinese positions during the talks.

    Developments 

    • These are among a number of infrastructure projects initiated on both sides since the stand-off, permanently altering the status quo on the ground in eastern Ladakh, even as the two sides await the 19th round of Corps Commander-level talks to find a resolution to their dispute in the region.
      • China is rushing to complete a bridge across the Pangong Tso, connecting the north and south banks
      • India is also building a black-topped road on its side on the north bank.
        • Construction of black-topped road towards Finger 4 on our side is on and is expected to be completed by 2025. 

    Challenges for India 

    • China’s rapid infrastructure development along the border has created an escalation trap for India. 
    • It is difficult for India to respond to this new reality without being seen as escalating the situation. 
    • It is also difficult for it to unilaterally de-escalate without strategic concessions that would endanger its positions. 
    • India’s response has been to increase its vigilance and readiness along the border, including surveillance. 
    • Continued escalation, including the potential of more serious clashes along the LAC, could become a major driver for broader tensions in the Indo-Pacific.

    Steps of India

    • The budgetary allocation for the Border Roads Organisation has increased sharply over the past few years; in 2023-24, for instance, BRO’s capital budget was ₹5,000 crore, 43% higher than the ₹3,500 crore allocated in 2022-23. 
      • Much of that has been spent on the India-China Border Roads (ICBR) plan.
      • The BRO is close to finishing some key infrastructure projects in the eastern sector, improving all-weather connectivity along the LAC.
    •  India is also improving surveillance along the LAC, apart from building new airstrips and landing areas.

    Way Ahead 

    • As large numbers of Indian and Chinese outposts continue to compete for strategic, operational and tactical advantage at the border — propelled by new infrastructure — it is important to pursue non-military and multilateral measures in parallel to reduce the risk of accidental escalation and to position these incidents as a significant threat to peace and order in the Indo-Pacific.
    •  As part of this, India should seek and receive support from the international community to call out China’s provocative behaviour on the border.
    •  Regional governments must pay greater attention to clashes on the India-China border. 

    Source:TH

    National Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission

    Syllabus: GS2/Health/GS3/Science and Technology

    In News

    The Prime Minister has launched the National Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission in Shahdol, Madhya Pradesh.

    Highlights of the Programme 

    • The PM distributed about 3.57 crore Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB-PMJAY) cards in Madhya Pradesh.
    • The PM also gave sickle cell genetic status cards to the beneficiaries. 
      • The card will be divided into different categories based on the screening results, if a is male positive and a female is also positive then the chances of giving birth to a positive child are increased. This card will be helpful in the elimination of sickle cell anaemia.
    • The Prime Minister honoured Rani Durgavati, the ruling queen of Gondwana in the mid-16th century. She is remembered as a brave, fearless and courageous warrior who fought for freedom against the Mughals.

    What is Sickle Cell Anaemia?

    • Sickle cell disease is a hereditary disease caused by mutations in one of the genes that encode the hemoglobin protein, the disease is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. 
    • The mutation causes the red blood cells to take on an unusual sickle shape. The mis-shapen cells lack plasticity and can block small blood vessels, impairing blood flow.
    • Impact: This condition leads to shortened red blood cell survival, and subsequent anaemia, often called sickle-cell anaemia. Poor blood oxygen levels and blood vessel blockages in people with sickle-cell disease can lead to chronic acute pain syndromes, severe bacterial infections, and necrosis (tissue death).
      • Individuals affected by sickle cell disease are chronically anemic and experience significant damage to their heart, lungs, and kidneys.

    • Causes: It is transmitted by parents carrying a defective ‘beta globin’ gene. For a child to be affected, both mother and father must carry one copy of the sickle cell gene — also known as sickle cell trait — and pass both copies of the altered form to the child.
    • Risk groups: Sickle-cell anaemia is particularly common among people whose ancestors come from sub-Saharan Africa, India, Saudi Arabia and Mediterranean countries.  Its Prevalence is higher in communities that practice endogamy, as the chances of having two parents with sickle cell trait is higher.
    • Management: Sickle-cell disease can be managed by simple procedures including: high fluid intake, healthy diet, folic acid supplementation, pain medication and vaccination & antibiotics for the prevention and treatment of infections. 
    • Cure: The only cure comes in the form of gene therapy and stem cell transplants — both are costly and still in developmental stages. 
    • World Sickle Cell Day is observed every year on June 19.

    National Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission

    • Background: The programme was first announced in the Union Budget 2023.
    • Coverage: It will be implemented in 17 high-focus states across namely Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, Bihar, and Uttarakhand. 
    • Objective: It aims to address the significant health challenges posed by sickle cell disease, particularly among tribal populations of the country.
    • Target: It aims to eliminate sickle cell genetic transmission by the year 2047 (i.e. before India celebrates Amrit Kaal in 2047).
    • Beneficiaries: The program will cover the entire population from zero to 18 years of age and shall incrementally include the entire population up to 40 years. Over a period of three years, spanning from the fiscal year 2023-24 to 2025-26, the program targets screening approximately 7.0 crore people.
    • The strategy emphasizes on Three pillars:
      • Health promotion: Awareness generation & pre-marital genetic counselling.
      • Prevention: Universal screening and early detection.
      • Holistic Management & continuum of care:
        • Management of persons with sickle cell disease at primary, secondary and tertiary health care levels; treatment facilities at tertiary health care facilities
        • Patient support system
        • Community adoption
    • Implementation: The programme will be executed as part of the National Health Mission (NHM) and in integration with existing mechanism under NHM such as Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK) and Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan (PMSMA).

    Status  of Anaemia in In India and Need for the National Mission 

    • India is the second-worst affected country in terms of predicted births with the disease — i.e. chances of being born with the condition.
    • The disease is more common in the tribal population of India, but occurs in non tribals too. It is expected that about 10% of tribals are sickle cell gene carriers and 1-1.5% have sickle cell disease.
    • As per Census 2011, India has an 8.6% tribal population which is 67.8 million across the Indian states. The MoHFW tribal health expert committee report has listed sickle cell disease as one of the 10 special problems in tribal health that affect the tribal people disproportionately, thus making this an important intervention. 
    • The Union Ministry of Health tribal health expert committee report has listed sickle cell disease as one of the 10 special problems in tribal health that affect the tribal people disproportionately.
    • The first description of sickle haemoglobin in India was by Lehman and Cutbush in 1952 in the tribal populations in the Nilgiri hills in south India.

    Haemoglobin Disorders 

    • Haemoglobin disorders are inherited blood diseases that affect how oxygen is carried in the body. Haemoglobin disorders fall into two main categories: sickle-cell disease and thalassaemia.
    • People with thalassaemia are not able to make enough haemoglobin, which is found in red blood cells. 
    • When there is not enough haemoglobin in the red blood cells, oxygen cannot get to all parts of the body. Thalassaemia requires regular blood transfusions to maintain an adequate supply of haemoglobin and sustain life.

    Source: PIB

    Credit Info Companies (CICs)

    Syllabus: GS3/ Indian Economy

    In News

    The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) penalised the four credit information companies (CICs) for their failure to update credit information of borrowers.

    About 

    • The RBI conducted a statutory inspection of four companies which  revealed that certain data relating to the credit information, especially updating credit information, maintained by the companies was not accurate and complete.

    What are Credit Info Companies (CICs)?

    • Credit Information Companies, also called credit bureaus, are organizations that collect, analyze, and maintain credit data on borrowers, businesses, and organizations. They are licensed by the Reserve Bank of India.
    • CIBIL is the oldest and most well-known credit information company in India. The top four credit information companies in India are:
      • Credit Information Bureau (India) Limited (CIBIL)
      • Equifax
      • Experian
      • CRIF Highmark
    • Functions: These bureaus collect credit information from a variety of sources, including lenders, banks, and financial institutions. 
      • This information is used to create a detailed credit report for each borrower, which includes information about their credit repayment history, late payments, rejected loan or credit applications, credit utilization ratio, and number of hard inquiries, among other factors.
      • The credit bureau then uses this credit report to calculate the borrower’s credit score, which is a numerical representation of their creditworthiness. 
      • They rate the borrowers in a scale of 300-900 with 900 being the highest rating.
      • The credit score is used by lenders to evaluate a borrower’s risk level and make decisions about whether to approve or reject loan or credit applications.
      • In addition to calculating credit scores, credit bureaus in India may also provide credit-related services to consumers, such as credit counseling or identity theft protection. 
      • They may also provide credit-related information to businesses, such as credit reports or credit scores for use in making business decisions.
    • Credit reports can only be provided to the following people or authorities upon request:
      • Borrower’s employer
      • Borrower’s landlords
      • Utility service providers
      • Government of India
      • Lenders, banks, financial institutions
      • Any third party (only after the written request from the borrower).

    Why RBI Penalised CICs?

    • The RBI had received many complaints from customers about CICs not updating the status of borrowers. 
    • Many customers had complained that when they rectified a default issue or point out a wrong classification, CICs failed to act within the stipulated timeframe.
    • As a result, many customers were unable to get loans or credit cards as banks accessed the database of CICs and the rating given by them while taking decisions on loan and card sanctions. 
    • If a credit card holder defaults on a credit card or loan instalment, it’s immediately notified to the CICs. However, CICs have failed to reclassify them when they rectified the payments.

    Conclusion and way forward 

    • When borrowers default on repayment and subsequently make the repayment, they should approach the CIC after a month to seek the status. If they are still classified as defaulters and rating is down, they should take up the issue with the CIC for rectification. 
    • Borrowers are in the dark about their credit rating and credit status unless they seek a report from CICs. Unlike banks, they don’t have direct access to CICs’ database.

    Source: IE

    Hul Diwas

    Syllabus: GS1/ Modern History

    In News

    The Prime Minister commended the bravery and courage of tribal freedom fighters Sidho, Kanhu, Chand, Bhairav and Phulo, Jhano on Hul Diwas.

    What is Hul Diwas?

    • Every year, the state of Jharkhand celebrates June 30 as ‘Hul Diwas’, marking the beginning of the Santhal  rebellion.
    • The Santal rebellion or ‘Hul’ – literally, revolution – began in 1855, two years before the uprising of 1857.

    Santal/Santhal Rebellion

    • The Santhal rebellion began on June 30, 1855 and was led by four brothers, namely Sidhu, Kanhu, Chand and Bhairav Murmu of village Bhagnadihi, under whom almost 60,000 Santhals mobilised with traditional weapons. 
    • The rebellion took place in the lush Damin-i-Koh region – ‘Damin-i-Koh’ meaning the ‘skirts of the hills’ – and took the British by complete surprise. 
      • This region falls in present-day Jharkhand, more specifically, around the Rajmahal Hills of eastern Jharkhand’s Sahibganj district.
    • Dharwak: It was a communication system used by the brothers Kanhu and Sidho Murmu in which they spread word about their plan through uniquely folded sal leaves and mobilised 10,000 people, and declared a rebellion. 
    • Phulo and Jhano Murmu joined forces, with them joining the rebellion, more women took up arms against the British.
    • Reasons: It began as a revolt against exploitation by Indian ‘upper’ caste zamindars, moneylenders, merchants and darogas (police officials), collectively known as ‘diku’, who had come to dominate the economic sphere of Santhal life.
      • The extreme form of oppression and neglect from British administration gave birth to social banditry in 1854 when a band of Santhals under the leadership of Bir Singh Manjhi, and others like Domin Manjhi and Kewal Pramanik, began to attack moneylenders and zamindars and distribute the loot among the poor Santhals.
      • It was led against the myriad forms of oppression – economic and otherwise – they were subjected to by the British and their collaborators.
    • Suppression of the Rebellion: The British suppressed the movement with utmost brutality. Sidhu was hanged by the British army on August 19, 1855, while Kanhu was arrested in February 1856. After this, the movement subsided. 
      • Even though this great insurrection lasted only for six months, it had a huge impact upon the Adivasi community and served as an inspiration for other Adivasi revolts.
    • Outcome: The British passed the Santhal Parganas Tenancy Act in 1876, which prohibited the transfer of land held by tribals to non-tribal people. The Act was the result of the Santhal’s unflinching will power and courage.

    Tribal Freedom Fighters of India

    Tilka Manjhi:

    • State: Bihar
    • Movement: The Manjhi Revolt of 1785
    • Start Year: 1785
    • Determined to defend his people and land, Tilka organized the Adivasis into an army trained in the use of bows and arrows.
    • In 1770, there was a severe famine in the Santhal region.
    • With this began his “Santhal Hool” (the revolt of the Santhals). He continued to attack the British and their sycophantic allies.
    • From 1771 to 1784, Tilka did not surrender to the colonial authorities.

    Tirot Sing:

    • State: Meghalaya
    • Movement: The Khasi Rebellion of 1833
    • Start Year: 1833
    • Tirot Sing, also known as U Tirot Sing Syiem was a Khasi chief of the early 19th century.
    • He drew his lineage from the Syiemlieh clan and declared war and fought against British for attempts to take over control of the Khasi Hills. In the Anglo-Khasi War, the Khasis resorted to guerrilla activity, which dragged on for about four years.
    • Tirot Sing was eventually captured by the British in January 1833 and deported to Dhaka.

    Telanga Kharia:

    • State: Jharkhand
    • Movement: Telanga Kharia Revolt, 1850-1880
    • Start Year: 1850
    • Telanga Kharia, belongijng to the Kharia tribe, encouraged the tribals to fight against the British atrocities and injustice in the Chota Nagpur region.
    • Under his leadership, 13 jury panchayats were formed, and he formed an army of around 1500 trained men in guerrilla warfare against the colonial regime.

    Nilamber and Pitamber:

    • State: Jharkhand
    • Movement: Revolt against the East India Company in 1857, Palamu
    • Start Year: 1857
    • In October 1857, the brothers – Nilamber and Pitamber from Latehar district – led around 500 tribals in an attack against the British agents in the region.
    • The Palamu Fort was occupied by the rebelling tribals.
    • Later, the strong British forces suppressed the rebellion, arrested the brothers and hanged them in Lesliganj.

    Veer Surendra Sai:

    • State: Odisha
    • Movement: 1857 Rebellion of Sambalpur
    • Start Year: 1857
    • Surendra Sai was born in the year 1809 in Rajpur Khinda, located about 35 kms. from Sambalpur.
    • Next in line to the throne of Sambalpur after the death of Maharaja Sai in 1827, Surendra Sai helped the tribal people in the fight against the British by encouraging their language and cultural development.
    • He was a man with great military genius. He guarded the passes to check military inflow of the Britishers in Sambalpur.
    • During the 1857 Mutiny, the Hazirabagh Jail was broken down and prisoners were liberated including Veer Surendra Sai. The 1857 rebellion of Sambalpur was essentially a tribal rebellion.

    Thamman-Dora and Alluri Seetharama Raju:

    • State: Andhra Pradesh
    • Movement: The Koya Revolt, 1862 and 1922-1924
    • Start Year: 1862
    • The Koya revolt started against the ‘Muttadars’ (zamindars) who formed a chain of rent collectors from the colonial rulers in the year 1862.
    • The Britishers deprived the tribals of their traditional rights over the toddy trees (most valuable property of the tribals for they yielded drinks). the traders from the region took advantage of the situation, by extending loans to the tribals they confiscated their produce and cattle.
    • As a result, the tribals attacked the authorities under the leadership of Thamman-Dora in 1879.
    • In 1922-24, this movement synchronized with the Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movement launched by Gandhiji under the leadership of Alluri Seetharama Raju (a Kashtriya from West Godavari district whose deep involvement with the tribals made him immortal among them).
    • Guerilla warfare was launched against the British that spanned a course of two years.

    Diva-Kishun Soren:

    • State: Jharkhand
    • Movement: Soren Revolt 1872
    • Start Year: 1872
    • Soren and Diva Soren were maternal brothers.
    • His guru’s name was Raghunath Bhuiyan.
    • After Raja Abhiram Singh of Podhat accepted the independence of the British, he inspired the people to stand against King Abhiram Singh of Podhat and the British administration.
    • The rebellion began in 1872 AD under the leadership of Diva-Kisun. This rebellion lasted for a long time, but at last the local people informed the British administration about Diva-Kisun hiding in the mountain.
    • Diva-Kisun was arrested by the British administration and soldiers of Raja Abhiram Singh and hanged in Seraikela jail.

    Pa Togan Sangma:

    • State: Meghalaya
    • Movement: Garo Attack against the British Occupation, 1872
    • Start Year: 1872
    • Pa Togan Sangma or Togan Sangma or Pa Togan Nengminja Sangma was a Garo (Tibeto-Burman ethnic group from the subcontinent) tribal leader.
    • Along with other Garo warriors, Pa Togan Sangma attacked the British officials while they were sleeping during their occupation of the region.

    Birsa Munda:

    • State: Jharkhand
    • Movement: Munda Rebellion, 1899
    • Start Year: 1899
    • Birsa, a Munda youngster, started thinking about the ills plaguing his society and decided to remove them by setting his people free from the British domination.
    • He provided the Mundas with leadership, with religion and with a code of life seeking dignity and freedom.
    • In 1894, he led the Mundas for redressal of grievances to Chaibasa and was arrested.
    • He spent two years of rigorous imprisonment. He continued to serve his people, especially the needy and the sick and was worshipped as ‘Birsa Bhagvan’.
    • Birsa struggled against the British throughout his life.
    • He was arrested on 3rd February, 1900, in Chakradharpur forest, after a fierce encounter and died in captivity.

    Thangal General:

    • State: Manipur
    • Movement: Anglo-Manipur War, 1891
    • Start Year: 1891
    • General Thangal, a Naga tribal of Senapati district of Manipur. He was among the most prominent heroes of the Anglo-Manipur War 1891. He was hanged to death on 13th August 1891 at Pheida-pung, Imphal.

    Paona Brajabashi:

    • State: Manipur
    • Movement: Khongjom Battle of 1891
    • Start Year: 1891
    • The Anglo-Manipuri war or the Khongjom Battle broke out in 1891. Attempting to resist British forces marching from Tamu, 700 Manipuri soldiers were dispatched to Thoubal led by Major General Paona Brajabashi, a brave soldier of the kingdom of Manipur.
    • Manipur celebrates Khongjom Day every year on 23rd April.

    Gunda Dhur:

    • State: Chhattisgarh
    • Movement: 1910 Rebellion of the Dhurwas of Kanger forest in Bastar
    • Start Year: 1910
    • The British rule in Bastar was abolished, the tribal rule was re-established even though for a short span of time.
    • Consequently, the reservation of land for industrial use by the colonial regime was suspended and the reserved area was reduced almost to half.

    Jatra Bhagat:

    • State: Jharkhand
    • Movement: Tana Bhagat Movement, 1920-1921
    • Start Year: 1920
    • Jatra Bhagat, also known as Jatra Oraon, from the Gumla District (his followers were known as ‘Tana Bhagats’) organized the Oraon tribals (one of the five largest tribes in South Asia) to fight against the oppression being done by the local zamindars and authorities.
    • In 1921, the tribals actively participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement. On their persuasion, ‘The Bhagat Agricultural Lands Restoration Act’ was passed in the then Bihar, for the land alienated tribals.

    Malati Mem:

    • State: Assam
    • Movement: Anti-opium campaign in tea gardens, 1921
    • Start Year: 1921
    • Malati Mem (Mangri Orang) was one of the leading members of the anti-opium campaign in tea gardens.
    • In 1921, she was killed by government supporters at Lalmati in Darrang district for supporting Congress Volunteers in the prohibition campaign.

    Haipou Jadonang:

    • State: Manipur
    • Movement: Leader of the Naga Nationalist Movement, 1930s
    • Start Year: 1930
    • Haipou Jadonang, a Rongmei Naga leader from Manipur, was a spiritual and political leader who fought for freedom from the clutches of the British colonial rule.
    • He began establishing an army, Riphen, that comprised of 500 men and women who were well trained in military tactics, weaponry and reconnaissance missions.
    • He was arrested in 1931 and hanged by the colonial rulers.

    Laxman Naik:

    • State: Odisha
    • Movement: Koraput Revolt, 1942
    • Start Year: 1942
    • Laxman Naik, belonging to the Bhumia tribe of Odisha, was accepted as the tribal leader by the people of Koraput and its surrounding region like Malkanagiri and Tentulipada.
    • The tribal people devoted themselves for the cause of national freedom. He mobilized the tribal people for development works like construction of roads, building bridges and establishing schools.
    • He asked the villagers not to pay any tax. He spearheaded the fight against colonial oppression and exploitation.
    • During the Quit India Movement 1942, he was nominated to represent Matili. He used nonviolence as a main weapon against colonial power.
    • The tribal people called him “Gandhi of Malkangiri.
    • The Bonda tribes of this region seized Matili police station under the leadership of Laxman Naik.
    • The police opened fire, klling around 7 people and injuring many. At the break of dawn on 29 March 1943, Laxman Naik was executed by the British at the Berhampur jail.

    Narayan Singh:

    • State: Chhattisgarh
    • Movement: Hero of the First War of Independence of Chhattisgarh, 1856-1857.
    • Start Year: 1856-1857
    • The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 was not confined to the activities of Indian Armymen, it spread to the tribal hinterland as well.
    • One such exmaple is Narayan Singh, the tribal landlord whose ancestors belonged to the Gond tribal group residing in Sarangarh.
    • In August 1856, he relieved the cultivators by distributing grain hoarded by a merchant – an act of public benefit for which he was publicly executed by the colonial authorities on 10th December, 1857 at Raipur.
    • He was earlier arrested in 1856 for a period of 10 months, from whence he escaped by digging an underground tunnel on 28th August 1857.
    • With the assistance of landlord of Deori, the British forces arrested Narayan Singh.

    Govind Guru:

    • State: Rajasthan
    • Movement: Bhagat Movement 1883
    • Start Year: 1883
    • The great famine of 1899-1900 affected tribals disproportionately.
    • From this tragedy emerged a social reform movement that aimed at the betterment of the marginalised. Led by Govind Guru, the Bhagat Movement was initiated to address the challenges faced by the Bhils. In 1913, along with his followers, Guru reached Mangarh.
    • Rumour spread that they were planning to revolt against the princely states.
    • The combined forces of the British and the princely states bombarded the crowd with bullets and artillery, killing over 1000 – this came to be knowas the Magadh Massacre.

    Source: News on Air

    Facts In News

    Ashadha Purnima

    Syllabus :GS 1/Art and Culture 

    In News

    The International Buddhist Confederation (IBC), under the aegis of the Ministry of Culture will celebrate Ashadha Purnima today, as the Dharma Chakra Pravartana Divas .

    About Dharma Chakra Pravartana Divas

    • It is the annual flagship event of the IBC and the second most sacred day for Buddhists after the Buddha Purnima or the Vaishakha Purnima. 

    About Ashadha Purnima

    • The auspicious day of Ashadha Purnima, which falls on the full moon day of the month of Ashadha as per the Indian lunar calendar, is also known as Esala Poya in Sri Lanka and Asanha Bucha in Thailand. 
    • The day marks Buddha’s first teaching after attaining Enlightenment to the first five ascetic disciples on the full-moon day of Ashadha at ‘Deer Park’, Risipatana Mrigadaya in the present day Sarnath, near Varanasi, India,
    • The day is also observed as Guru Purnima by both Buddhists and Hindus as a day to mark reverence for their Gurus.   

    Source:News on air 

    Osmosis: fluid transfer

    Syllabus :GS 3/Science and Technology

    In News

    Recently, the Osmosis process was seen in the news.

    About Osmosis

    • It is the term used to refer specifically to the diffusion of water across a differentially- or semi-permeable membrane. 
    • It is a common physical process observed in living cells and tissues of all organisms. 
    • It occurs spontaneously in response to a driving force and the net direction and rate of osmosis depends on both the pressure gradient and concentration gradient.
      • Water will move from its region of higher chemical  potential (or concentration) to its region of lower chemical potential until equilibrium is reached. 
      • At equilibrium the two chambers should have the same water potential.
    • A German plant physiologist named Wilhelm Pfeffer first thoroughly studied osmosis in 1877, after various other studies by other scholars on leaky membranes.

    Relevance 

    • It is incredibly important in biology, where liquids move from one part of an organism to another through cellular membranes that are semipermeable.
    •  In trees, osmosis is part of a pumping system that transports water and nutrients up from the roots to the leaves.

    Source:TH

    JENIN

    Syllabus: GS2/IR

    News

    • The Israeli army has launched a military operation on the refugee camp in Jenin in the Israeli-occupied West Bank.

    About

    • Location: Jenin is a Palestinian city in the West Bank. It is situated at the foot of the Jabal Nablus hills of the West Bank and along the southern edge of the Jezreel Valley.
    • Names: Throughout history, it was referred to as “Ein Ganim”, “Beth Hagan”, “Ginah”, and “Ginae”.

    Palestine

    • Palestine is a state located in the Southern Levant region of Western Asia governed officially by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).
    • It comprises the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip as its territory, though the entirety of that territory has been under Israeli occupation since the 1967 Six-Day War.

    Source: News on Air

    INSTITUTE OF CHARTERED ACCOUNTANTS OF INDIA (ICAI)

    Syllabus: GS3/Indian Economy

    News

    • The President of India, Droupadi Murmu attended the 75th  Foundation Day celebrations of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) in New Delhi.

    About

    • Parent Body: ICAI functions under the administrative control of the Union Ministry of Corporate Affairs.
    • Background: It was established in 1949.
    • Status: It is a statutory body established under the Chartered Accountants Act, 1949.
    • Headquarters: New Delhi.

    Functions

    • It is tasked with the regulation of the profession of Chartered Accountancy.
    • ICAI can be appointed as statutory auditor of a company under the Companies Act, 2013.
    • ICAI has recently started a “Financial and Tax Literacy” campaign for women.

    Source: PIB

    Kedarnath Shrine

    Syllabus: GS1/Culture

    In News

    A controversy has erupted over the “gold plating” on the walls of Kedarnath Temple’s sanctum sanctorum.

    More on News

    • Badrinath Kedarnath Temple Committee last year announced that 550 layers of gold would be applied as layers on the inner walls of the shrine. 

    About Kedarnath temple 

    • At 3,584 metres, the Kedarnath temple stands in the Garhwal Himalayas. 
    • It located on the bank of Mandakini river Kedarnath and it forms one of the four sites of the Chota Char Dham Pilgrimage. 
    • It is one of the holiest Hindu shrines in India and is the seat of Lord Shiva and one of the 12 jyotirlingas established by Adi Shankaracharya in the 8th century. 
    • It is among the 275 temples of Paadal Petra Sthalams (the most powerful Shiva temples in the world) and is also the most important among the Panch Kedars.
      • The other four are Tungnath,Rudranath, Madmaheshwar and Kalpeshwar

    Source: IE

    DIAMOND LEAGUE

    Syllabus: Miscellaneous

    News

    • Neeraj Chopra won gold in the javelin throw at the Diamond League in Lausanne (a city on Lake Geneva, in Switzerland). This was his second consecutive Diamond League win in this season following the win at Doha in May 2023.

    About

    • What is it? The Diamond League is an annual series of elite track and field competitions.
    • Background: It was started in 2010 as a replacement for the previous IAAF Golden League and IAAF World Athletics Final events.
    • Organizers: The Diamond League is organised by World Athletics (formerly IAAF or International Association of Athletics Federations), the international governing body for athletics.
    • The 2023 Diamond League: The 14th edition of the Diamond League began in May 2023 in Doha, the capital of Qatar. The fifteen meetings in this edition are scheduled at various cities across the world. The finals will be held in september 2023 in Eugene, United States.

    Neeraj Chopra

    • Neeraj Chopra is an Indian track and field athlete in the javelin throw from Haryana.
    • At 2020/21 Tokyo Olympics, he won the gold in Javelin Throw, becoming the first Indian to win a gold medal in track and field and the second Indian to win an individual Olympic gold after Abhinav Bindra (in shooting).

     Source: IE