4,000-year-old settlement found in Durgadevi


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    4,000 years old settlement found during excavation in Odisha 


    • Archaeologists encounter distinct traces of three cultural phases at the excavation site at Durgadevi village, Balasore District.
    • The Odisha Institute of Maritime and South East Asian Studies (OIMSEAS), an archaeological wing of the State government, discovered it.


    • The site has a circular mud fortification of about 4.9 km between the Sona river to the south and the Burahabalang river on its northeastern margin.
    • Archaeologists have come across distinct traces of three cultural phases at the excavation site 
      • Chalcolithic (2000 BCE to 1000 BCE), 
      • the Iron Age (1000 BCE to 400 BCE) and 
      • the Early Historic Period (400 BCE to 200 BCE).
    • Chalcolithic period (2000 BCE to 1000 BCE):
      • Human settlements and artefacts belonging to this period are found.
      • The major discovery of the Chalcolithic period of Durgadevi is the base of a circular hut, black on red painted pottery, black slipped ware, red slipped ware and copper objects. The floor of the circular hut is rammed with red soil
      • From the base of the circular hut and the utilitarian objects found, the lifestyle of the people has been derived. 
      • People were mostly leading a settled life and had started agriculture, and domestication of animals and fishing
    • Iron Age (1000 BCE to 400 BCE): 
      • The cultural material evidence and remains found from this phase include pottery, remains of black burnished ware, black and redware, iron objects like nails, arrowheads, and crucible and slag of various kinds belonging to the Iron Age.
      • In North Odisha, this is the first Iron Age site.
    • Early Historic Period Evidence (400 BCE to 200 BCE) :
      • Cultural materials such as pottery specimens of redware, terracotta ear studs, bangles, beads, and some conical objects, were also discovered from the site.
      • The lifestyle of the people was very improved at that time, from an agricultural base to trade and construction of fortification around the site with a moat, which signify the emergence of urbanisation at Durgadevi around 400 BCE to 200 BCE.


    • The excavation was started with an aim to correlate the simultaneous growth and development of maritime activities, and urbanisation on the east coast of India.
    • Such discoveries will help in better understanding the evolution of Human Beings.

    Sources: TH