NCRB Data on Human Trafficking

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    • According to the recent report of the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), the conviction rate in human trafficking cases across the country continues to be low. 

    More about the news

    • 2021 data:
      • Police filed charge sheets in 84.7 percent of the 2,189 cases registered under the Anti-Human Trafficking Units (AHTUs) across the country in 2021.
      • Only 16 percent of the cases saw convictions.
    • 2020 data:
      • In 2020, police filed charge sheets in 85.2 percent of the 1,714 trafficking cases that were registered, but only 10.6 percent of the total cases saw convictions. 
      • Seven states reported no convictions while two reported a conviction rate of less than 2 percent.
    • State-wise data of 2021:
      • Data on convictions was not available for 11 states.
      • The top performer was Jharkhand, which saw convictions in 84.2 percent of the 92 cases that were registered in 2021.
      • As many as eight states and three Union territories saw no convictions at all. The states and Union territories that reported zero convictions in 2021 are: 
        • Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Odisha, Telangana, Delhi, Chandigarh and Jammu and Kashmir. 
          • Of these, police had filed final charge sheets in over 90 percent of the cases in Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana; and in over 80 percent of the cases in Goa and Haryana.
      • The highest number of trafficking cases was registered in Telangana (347 cases), Maharashtra (320 cases), and Assam (203 cases).

    What is Human Trafficking?

    • It is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of people through force, fraud or deception, with the aim of exploiting them for profit.
    • Men, women and children of all ages and from all backgrounds can become victims of this crime, which occurs in every region of the world. 
    • The traffickers often use violence or fraudulent employment agencies and fake promises of education and job opportunities to trick and coerce their victims.
    • Human trafficking is a global crime that trades in people and exploits them for profit. 

    Constitutional and Legislative Provisions in India relating to Human Trafficking

    • Article 23(1): 
      • It prohibits the trafficking of persons.
    • Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 (ITPA): 
      • It aims to stop immoral trafficking and prostitution in India and is divided into 25 sections and one schedule.
    • Sections 366(A) of Indian Penal Code: 
      • It prohibits kidnapping and Section 372 of IPC prohibits selling minors into prostitution.
    • Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act 1976, Child Labour (Prohibition and Abolition) Act 1986 and Juvenile Justice Act: 
      • All of these prohibit bonded and forced labour.
    • Protection of Children from Sexual offences (POCSO) Act, 2012: 
      • It is a special law to protect children from sexual abuse and exploitation.

    Measures Taken by Government

    • The Trafficking of Persons (Prevention, Protection and Rehabilitation) Bill, 2018 was passed by Lok Sabha but could not be taken up in Rajya Sabha and subsequently lapsed
    • Draft of the Trafficking in Persons (Prevention, Care and Rehabilitation) Bill 2021 was published by the Ministry of Women and Child Development in June 2021.   
      • The draft bill widens the definition of the “victim” by including transgenders, besides women and children.
      • National Anti-Trafficking Committee:
        • Once the bill becomes an Act, the central government will notify and set up a National Anti-Trafficking Committee, while state governments will set up these committees at state and district levels to ensure effective implementation.
    • Anti-Human Trafficking Units (AHTUs):
      • AHTU, an integrated task force, was set up in 2007
      • The force draws personnel from the police and other related departments, with funding by the Union Ministry of Home Affairs
    • Anti Trafficking Cell (ATC): 
      • It was set up in the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) in 2006 to act as a focal point for communicating various decisions and following up on action taken by the State Governments to combat the crime of Human Trafficking. 
    • Women help desks:
      • These were established in 10,000 police stations across the country.
    • Operation AAHT:
      • Under this, special teams will be deployed on all long-distance trains/routes with a focus on rescuing victims, particularly women and children, from the clutches of traffickers.
      • The infrastructure and intelligence network of the RPF could be utilised to collect, collate and analyse clues on victims, source, route, destination, popular trains used by suspects, the identity of carriers/agents, kingpins etc and shared with other law-enforcing agencies.
    • Scheme Strengthening law enforcement response in India against Trafficking in Persons through Training and Capacity Building:
      • MHA under this Comprehensive scheme, has released fund for the establishment of Anti Human Trafficking Units for 270 districts of the country.
      • Strengthening capacity building: 
        • To enhance the capacity building of law enforcement agencies and generate awareness among them.
    • Judicial Colloquium: 
      • In order to train and sensitize the trial court judicial officers, Judicial Colloquium on human trafficking are held at the High court level.
      • The aim is to sensitise the judicial officers about the various issues concerning human trafficking and to ensure a speedy court process.
      • So far, eleven Judicial Colloquiums have been held at Chandigarh, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Odisha.

    About National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB)

    • It was set up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals.
    • It was established on the recommendations of the Tandon Committee to the National Police Commission (1977-1981) and the MHA’s Taskforce (1985).
    • NCRB was entrusted with the responsibility for monitoring, coordinating and implementing the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS) project in the year 2009.
      • This project connects 15000+ police stations and 6000 higher offices of police in the country.
    • In August 2017, NCRB launched the National Digital Police Portal, which allows search for a criminal/suspect on the CCTNS database.
    • The Bureau has also been entrusted to maintain the National Database of Sexual Offenders (NDSO) and share it with the States/UTs on a regular basis.
    • NCRB has also been designated as the Central Nodal Agency to manage technical and operational functions of the Online Cyber-Crime Reporting Portal.

    Source: IE