Facts and News


    Indian Economy

    Sukhet Model

    Syllabus:GS 3/Indian Economy & Related Issues

    In News

    • Recently, the Prime Minister of India praised the ‘Sukhet model’ of Madhubani district in his ‘Mann Ki Baat’ programme.


    • Sukhet model is named after Sukhet village in Madhubani district where it is being implemented by the scientists of Dr Rajendra Prasad Central Agriculture University, Pusa (Samastipur)Bihar.
    • Under this project, garbage and dung from houses are collected door-to-door and then converted into vermicompost (organic manure)
    • From the income generated from the sale of organic manure, every family is provided LPG cylinders every two months in exchange for the waste and cow dung


    • It also provides four-fold benefits to farmers four-fold benefit like a pollution-free environment in villages, disposal of waste in villages, monetary assistance to villagers for gas cylinders and availability of organic fertilisers to farmers.
    • Employment generation

    Other Related schemes (Godhan Nyay Yojana)

    • Launched on 21st July 2020, on the occasion of Hareli, the first festival of the state, by the Chhattisgarh
    • Under this, the state government would procure cow dung at  2 per k.g. from the farmers and cattle rearers of the state which will lead to income as well as employment generation.
    • The government will also make arrangements for the marketing of additional organic fertilizer.

    Indian Economy

    E-Gopala App

    Syllabus: GS 3/Indian Economy & Related Issues

    In News

    • The web version of the e-GOPALA application developed by the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) has been launched to aid dairy farmers. 


    • e-GOPALA provides a platform to farmers in the country for managing livestock including buying and selling of disease-free germplasm in all forms (semen, embryos, etc), availability of quality breeding services (Artificial Insemination, veterinary first aid, vaccination, treatment etc) and guiding farmers for animal nutrition, treatment of animals using appropriate ayurvedic medicine/ethnoveterinary medicine. 
    • There is a mechanism to send alerts (on the due date for vaccination, pregnancy diagnosis, calving etc) and inform farmers about various government schemes.
    • This portal will also facilitate real-time checking of coverage and progress of various projects and government schemes.

    National Dairy Development Board’s (NDDB) 

    • It was created to promote, finance and support producer-owned and controlled organisations.
    • NDDB’s programmes and activities seek to strengthen farmer-owned institutions and support national policies that are favourable to the growth of such institutions. 
    • Fundamental to NDDB’s efforts are cooperative strategies and principles.
    • NDDB’s efforts transformed India’s rural economy by making dairying a viable and profitable economic activity for millions of milk producers while addressing the country’s need for self-sufficiency in milk production.
    • NDDB has been reaching out to dairy farmers by implementing other income-generating innovative activities and offering them sustainable livelihood.


    Biodiversity and Environment

    Crocodile Species in India

    Syllabus: GS 3/Species in News 

    In News

    • Odisha’s Kendrapara emerged as the only district in the country that is home to all the three species of a crocodile after forest officials found a baby gharial in the river system
    • Kendrapara now has gharial (Gavialis gangeticus), mugger (Crocodylus palustris) and saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus).

    Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus)

    • It is also known as the gavial or the fish-eating crocodile,It is the longest among all living crocodilians
    • Conservation:  Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List)
    • Schedule I: Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
    • Appendix I: CITES
    • Threats: Loss of habitat because of sand mining and conversion to agriculture, depletion of fish resources and detrimental fishing.

    Saltwater crocodile(Crocodylus porosus)

    • It is the earth’s largest living crocodilian, with average-size males reaching 17 feet and 1,000 pounds.
    • Habitat
      • Brackish and freshwater regions of eastern India, Southeast Asia and northern Australia.
      • In and around BNP, the Sundarbans and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, in India.
    • Threats:
      • Illegal hunting for their hides, habitat loss, and antipathy due to its reputation as a man-eater.
    • Conservation: 
      • In 1975, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) started a crocodile breeding and rearing project.
      • IUCN Red List: Least Concern
      • Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972: Schedule I

    Mugger crocodile(Crocodylus palustris)

    • The mugger crocodile also called marsh crocodile or broad-snouted crocodile
    • Habitat :
      • It is native to freshwater habitats from southern Iran and Pakistan to the Indian subcontinent and Sri Lanka.
    • Conservation 
      • The mugger has been listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 1982.
      •  In India, it is protected under Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. Among the six schedules in the Act, Schedule I and part II of Schedule II provide the highest degrees of protection to listed species, with the most stringent penalties for offenders.

    Art & Culture

    World Heritage Institute of Training and Research – Asia Pacific (WHITRAP)

    Syllabus: GS1/ Art & Culture

    In News

    • The World Heritage Institute of Training and Research – Asia Pacific (WHITRAP) has recognised CEPT University’s Programme in Conservation and Regeneration as a “commended case”.


    • Among these entries received by WHITRAP, the Conservation Programme at CEPT was the only one from South Asia to get recognition as a ’Commended Case’ of Global Innovation on World Heritage Education.
    • The World Heritage Education Programme was initiated as a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) special project in 1994. 


    • About:
      • It is a non-profit organization specialized in the area of heritage conservation.
      • It is an institute under the auspices of UNESCO, it is the first one established in developing countries.
      • It is an autonomous institution at the service of member states and associate members of UNESCO.
      • It was established in 2007 and is located in China.
      • It provides services to States Parties to the 1972 World Heritage Convention in the Asia-Pacific region.
    • Objectives:
      • Increasing the balanced representation and distribution of Asia-Pacific properties on the World Heritage List.
      • Promoting better protection and management of the World Heritage properties in the Asia and the Pacific region.
      • Raising awareness of the World Heritage conservation among the general public.
    • Mandate:
      • To strengthen the implementation of the World Heritage Convention through capacity building, training, research, communication and dissemination of information.
    • World Heritage Convention:
      • It is an international agreement that was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation) in 1972.
      • The Convention is administered by the World Heritage Committee, which is an elected body comprising representatives of 21 nations.
      • The Convention was based on the premise that certain places on earth are of ‘outstanding universal value’ and therefore they should be identified and safeguarded by the international community as a whole.
      • India is a signatory to the convention and has 40 world heritage sites as of now.

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

    • It was formed in 1945, is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
    • It works for achieving peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter.
    • It has 195 member states and ten associate members. India is a founding member of the Organisation.

    Source: IE

    International Organisations

    Resolution 2593: UNSC

    Syllabus: GS2/ International organisations & groupings

    In News

    • The United Nations Security Council, under the current Presidency of India, on August 30, 2021, adopted Resolution 2593 on the situation in Afghanistan.


    • The resolution called on the Taliban to keep its commitments to preventing terror groups in Afghanistan and urged them to assist the safe evacuations of all Afghan nationals wishing to leave the country, which was the result of careful coordination.
      • It specifically mentions individuals designated by the UNSC resolution 1267,” which includes the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) and the Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM).
    • The resolution was put forward by the US, the UK, France. It was adopted after 13 Council members voted in favour, while permanent members Russia and China abstained from the voting.

    Health/ Science & Technology

    West Nile Virus

    Syllabus: GS2/ Health

    In News

    • Russia has warned of an increase in West Nile virus (WNV) infections due to mild temperatures and heavy precipitation creating favourable conditions for the mosquitos that carry it.

    West Nile Virus

    • About:
      • West Nile Virus (WNV) is a member of the flavivirus genus and belongs to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the family Flaviviridae.
    • Origin:
    • It was first isolated in a woman in the West Nile district of Uganda in 1937. It was identified in birds in the Nile delta region in 1953. 
    • Birds are the natural hosts of the West Nile virus.
    • It is commonly found in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, North America and West Asia. 
    • Transmission:
      • Human infection is most often the result of bites from infected mosquitoes. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds, which circulate the virus in their blood for a few days.
      • No human-to-human transmission of WNV through casual contact has been documented.
    • Symptoms:
      • Infected persons usually have no symptoms or mild symptoms, it can cause a fatal neurological disease in certain cases.
      • Some of the symptoms include fever, headache, body aches, skin rash, and swollen lymph glands.
    • Treatment:
    • As of now, there is no vaccine against the virus in humans although one exists for horses.