India and Kyrgyz Republic

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    In News

    • Recently, the 10th Session of the India-Kyrgyz Republic Inter-Governmental Commission on Trade, Economic, Scientific and Technological Cooperation (IKIGC).

    More about the news

    • About:
      • The 10th session of IKIGC was held in a virtual format. 
      • A Protocol of the 10th session of the IKIGC was signed between India and the Kyrgyz Republic.
    • Both sides discussed mutual cooperation and steps to further enhance them in the fields of:
      • Trade & Economy, 
      • Development Partnership, 
      • Investment, 
      • Digitalization, 
      • Intellectual Property, 
      • Agriculture, Healthcare & Pharmaceuticals, 
      • Textiles, 
      • Education, 
      • Environment, 
      • Standardization & Metrology, 
      • Banking, 
      • Transport, 
      • Labour, 
      • Mining and 
      • Power sectors. 
    • Trade relations:
      • Emphasis was given to increase the bilateral trade and investment opportunities. The sides agreed to take necessary measures to increase the interaction of exporters and importers of the two countries and expand the trading basket.

    India-Kyrgyz Republic Bilateral Relations

    • Historical ties:
      • Historically, India has had close contacts with Central Asia, especially countries that were part of the ancient Silk Route, including Kyrgyz Republic. 
      • During the Soviet era, India and the then Kyrgyz Republic had limited political, economic and cultural contacts.
    • Anniversary of Diplomatic relations:
      • India was among the first Nations to establish a diplomatic relationship with the Kyrgyz Republic in March 1992 
        • The 2022 marked the 30th anniversary of diplomatic relationships between the two nations.
    • Strategic relationship:
      • The visit of the Indian Prime Minister to the Kyrgyz Republic in June 2019 had raised the relationship between two nations to the level of strategic partnership. 
      • The 10th India- Kyrgyz Republic Foreign Office Consultations took place in Bishkek on 20 April, 2019. 
    • International ties:
      • Political ties with the Kyrgyz Republic have been traditionally warm and friendly
      • Kyrgyz Republic supported India in securing full membership in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and also supports India’s bid for permanent seat at UNSC
      • Both countries share common concerns on threats of terrorism, extremism and drug–trafficking
    • Trade & Commerece Cooperation:
      • The India- Kyrgyz Republic Inter-Governmental Commission on Trade, Economic, Scientific and Technological Cooperation was set up in 1992.
      • Connectivity:
        • Connectivity remains one of the biggest challenges for trade between India and Kyrgyz Republic. 
      • Technical assistance:
        • Technical assistance under the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) Program, particularly in terms of human resources development, is an important component of India’s economic involvement in Kyrgyz Republic. 
    • Defence Cooperation:
      • Agreement on Defence Cooperation, signed in July 2015, has been an important milestone that has laid the framework for defence cooperation between the two sides. 
      • Joint Special Forces Exercise KHANJAR has now become an annual affair. 
        • The sixth ‘Khanjar’ exercise was conducted between Indian and Kyrgyz Special Forces in March, 2019 in Bishkek. 
        • Fifth exercise was conducted in India in CIJW School, Varaingte (Mizoram) in 2018. 
        • India – Kyrgyzstan Joint Special Forces Exercise, 2022:
          • The 9th Edition of this exercise was recently concluded in April 2022. 
          • Besides sharing special skills and techniques between participating Special Forces contingents, the joint training further strengthened the existing bond between India and Kyrgyzstan.
    • Cultural ties:
      • There is a great appreciation for Indian culture. 
      • Kyrgyz Republic has established an India Study Centre in the prestigious National Library of Kyrgyz Republic on 14 November 2014. 
        • The Center is running with the help of volunteers and imparts training in English and Hindi languages, Yoga and Kathak. 
        • Another center has been opened in Kara Balta, near Bishkek. Numerous Kathak, yoga, Indian dance, fusion music and Bollywood workshops/concerts have been organized to propagate and popularise Indian culture and traditions.

    Kyrgyzstan-­Tajikistan Conflict

    • Recent clash:
      • Recently, nearly 100 people have been killed and scores injured in violent border clashes between Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.
      • A ceasefire, brokered by Russia, was recently agreed upon after the clashes.
    • Issue:
      • The two landlocked countries share a 1,000-km long border, a large part of which is disputed. 
        • While regular talks have tried to resolve the issue, one of the crucial points of disagreement remains over the map which should be used for demarcation purposes. 
    • Reasons behind the clashes:
      • There have been flare-ups in the past as well over sharing water and land resources.
        • The current clashes are replaying old pre- and post-Soviet era legacies
    • Russia-led CSTO:
      • It is important to note that both Kyrgyztan and Tajikistan are Russian military bases.
        • The border dispute between the nations is a part of the Russia-led Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO).

    Frozen conflicts in the region:

    • Frozen conflicts:
      • In international relations parlance, conflicts that ended in a stalemate or without a peace treaty are known as frozen conflicts. 
      • The frozen conflicts of the post-Soviet era are increasingly threatening regional peace. 
    • Armenia and Azerbaijan: 
      • Recently clashes also broke out between Armenia and Azerbaijan. 
    • Ferghana valley: 
      • Regions like Ferghana valley continue to be a site of struggle and frequent violent outbursts, with the location consisting primarily of Tajiks, Kyrgyz, and Uzbeks, who have historically shared common sociological specificities, economic activities, and religious practices.

    Source: TH