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    • Recently, the Director-General of the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), said that hotbeds of left-wing extremism have been cleared in three States.

    More about the news:

    • Update of the LWE:
      • Bihar: According to CRPF Chief, Bihar is free of left-wing extremism (LWE) now.
      • Jharkhand: Security forces have made inroads into areas in Jharkhand that were once inaccessible due to the presence of Maoists.
      • Overall affected districts:
        • The number of most affected districts, accounting for 90% of the violent incidents, had reduced from 35 in 2015 to 25 in 2021. 
          • These districts are mostly in Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, Telengana and Andhra Pradesh.
          • Simultaneously, the area under influence of Maoists has also reduced significantly.
      • Incidents of violence: They have come down from the highest level of 2,258 in 2009 to 509 in 2021. 
      • The death rate: Rate came down since to violence has come down by 85%. 
      • Death toll: In the year 2010, the death toll was at the highest level of 1,005 which has come down to 147 in the year 2021. 
    • Operations led by CRPF:
      • CRPF launched Operation Octopus, Operation Double Bull, Operation Thunderstorm and Operation Chakarbandha in the three States (Bihar, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh). 

    Left-wing Extremism(LWE) in India

    • About:
      • Left-wing extremists, popularly known as Maoists worldwide and as Naxalites/Naxalism in India, has been a major threat to India since the 1960s. 
      • The Naxalites have frequently targeted tribal, police and government workers in what they say is a fight for improved land rights and more jobs for neglected agricultural labourers and the poor.
      • Red Corridor:
        • The influence zone of LWE in India is called the Red corridor, which has been steadily declining in terms of geographical coverage and number of violent incidents.
    • History of LWE in India:
      • The term Naxalism derives from the name of the Naxalbari village in West Bengal where a peasant revolt took place against local landlords over a land dispute in 1967.
      • The origins of Left-Wing Extremism (LWE) in India goes back to the Telangana peasant rebellion (1946-51), the movement was at its peak in 1967, when the peasants, landless labourers, and Adivasis raided the granaries of a landlord in the Naxalbari village in West Bengal.
      • The Naxal rebellion was led by Charu Majumdar and his close associates, Kanu Sanyal and Jangal Santhal.
      • These rebels not only were assisted by the people from nearby villages but also from the People’s Republic of China. The Chinese Media had called this movement the “Spring Thunder”.
      • The movement initially took inspiration from China’s founding father, Mao Zedong, but had later become radically different from Maoism.
    • Reasons for Left Wing Extremism
      • Tribal Discontent:
        • The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 has been used to target tribals, who depend on forest produce for their living.
        • Massive displacement of tribal population in the Naxalism-affected states due to development projects, mining operations and other reasons.
          • Also, poor implementation of FRA, eviction of the land ceiling.
      • Lack of Livelihood: 
        • Such people who do not have any source of living are taken into Naxalism by Maoists.
        • Maoists provide arms and ammunition and money to such people.
      • Governance-related issues:
        • Government measures its success on the basis of the number of violent attacks rather than the development done in the Naxal-affected areas.
        • Absence of strong technical intelligence to fight with Naxalites.
        • Infrastructural problems, for instance, some villages are not yet connected properly with any communication network.
        • No Follow-Up from Administration: It is seen that even after police take hold of a region, the administration fails to provide essential services to the people of that region.

    Government Initiatives to Fight LWE

    • Operation Octopus:
      • Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) has been conducting a major Naxal operation named ‘Octopus’ at the heavily mined ‘Burha Pahar’ hilly range in Garhwa district bordering Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand.
      • This operation is claimed to be a big success as the force first time managed to root out Naxal dominance from the area.
    • Operation Double Bull:
      • It was launched in the jungles of Bulbul area in Lohardaga and neighbouring districts of Jharkhand.
    • Greyhounds: 
      • It was raised in 1989 as an elite anti-Naxal force.
    • Operation Green Hunt: 
      • It was started in 2009-10 and massive deployment of security forces was done in the Naxal-affected areas
    • Aspirational Districts Programme: 
      • Launched in 2018, it aims to rapidly transform the districts that have shown relatively lesser progress in key social areas.
    • SAMADHAN doctrine:
      • It is the one-stop solution for the LWE problem. It encompasses the entire strategy of government from short-term policy to long-term policy formulated at different levels. SAMADHAN stands for-
        • S– Smart Leadership,
        • A– Aggressive Strategy,
        • M– Motivation and Training,
        • A– Actionable Intelligence,
        • D– Dashboard Based KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) and KRAs (Key Result Areas),
        • H– Harnessing Technology,
        • A– Action plan for each Theatre,
        • N– No access to Financing.
    • ROSHNI:
      • It is a special initiative under, Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (Formerly Ajeevika Skills), launched in June 2013 for training and placement of rural poor youth from 27 LWE-affected districts in 09 States
      • Intelligence sharing and raising of a separate 66 Indian Reserved Battalion(IRBs), CRPF battalions like COBRA battalion, Bastariya battalion etc were done by the government to curb the menace of LWE organizations.

    About Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)

    • Ministry: 
      • CRPF officially works under the Ministry of Home Affairs.
    • Functions:
      • It essentially functions for all states and union territories alike.
      • The force’s job is to maintain law and order in the subcontinent and by the virtue of it they combat against insurgencies, act as rescue forces whenever required, etc.
      • The CRPF is one of the largest Central armed police forces deployed in the LWE affected States.
      • COBRA is a special operation unit of the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) of India proficient in guerrilla tactics and jungle warfare.
      • CRPF was the on guard force at the Indo-Pak border until 1965 when the Border Security Force came into existence specifically for this purpose. 
      • The CRPF continues to step in whenever natural disasters or some unforeseen accidents happen.
      • CRPF is also deployed for international missions for the United Nations.
    • Capacity: 
      • It is India’s largest central armed police force having around 246 battalions, and more than 30,000 personnel. 

    Source: TH