Minority Governments 

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    Syllabus : GS 2/Polity and Governance

    In News

    • Recently, Prime Minister Narendra Modi  highlighted minority governments in India.

    What is a Minority Government?

    • A minority government is a government formed by a political party that does not have an overall majority .
    • As a result, the political party that forms the minority government requires the support of another political party (or parties) to pass laws.

    Characteristics 

    • When there is a minority government, decision-making power is shared between different political parties, rather than being concentrated in the governing party.
    •  The government often needs to adjust and adapt its priorities to stay in power and reflect the interests of other parties.
    • Laws from a minority government tend to include elements put forward by different political parties.

    Issues Linked to Minority Government

    • A minority government tends to be much less stable than a majority government
    • Minority governments in most cases are not allowed to exercise their power properly.
    • They are under constant conflict with the opposition parties

    Indian Scenario 

    • Since 1989 ,There have been eleven governments at the Centre, all of which have either been coalition governments or minority governments supported by other parties, which did not join the government.
    • In this new phase, any government could be formed only with the participation or support of many regional parties.
      • This applied to the National Front in 1989, the United Front in 1996 and 1997, the NDA in 1997, the BJP-led coalition in 1998, the NDA in 1999, the UPA in 2004 and 2009.  
    • However, this trend changed in 2014.
    Do you Know ?
    – The President of India is the constitutional head of the state whereas the Prime Minister (PM) and his/her Cabinet are the real executive. 
    1. The PM and Council of Ministers are chosen from the majority party in the Parliament and are responsible to it for their policies and actions. 
    2. They remain in office, as long as they enjoy the confidence of the latter.

    Constitutional Provisions  
    – The function of the PM, as per Article 74 is that of rendering aid and advice to the President. 
    Article 75(1) of the Indian Constitution provides that the PM shall be appointed by the President and other ministers shall be appointed by the President on the advice of the PM. 
    Article 75(2) governs that ministers shall hold office at the pleasure of the President of India. 
    Article 78 places an obligation on the PM to inform the President about all decisions relating to administration of affairs of the Union and also proposals pertaining to future legislations.

    Source: IE