ABC Framework


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    • The Centre has brought all recognised higher education institutions, irrespective of their accreditation or rankings, under the ambit of the Academic Bank of Credit (ABC).
      • The government has brought the IITs, IIMs and other Institutions of National Importance (INIs) under the Academic Bank of Credit (ABC) framework, which allows students to pursue up to 50 per cent of a course from institutions other than the one with which they are enrolled. 


    • Aim: To enable students to switch between institutions and multiple entries and exits to and from the programme.
    • ABC framework is part of National Education Policy (NEP) 2020: Thus, will allow higher education institutions to maintain a digital repository of credits earned by students.
      • Students can choose to study one course in a year in one institution and switch to another one the next year.
      • The framework also allows students to pursue courses online and earn credits.
      • Institutions have the flexibility of adopting it at a time of their choice.
    • University Grants Commission (UGC): Notified ABC and issued the UGC (Establishment and Operation of Academic Bank of Credits in Higher Education) Regulations, 2021.
      • Universities and autonomous colleges satisfying sub-regulation 2 of regulation 1 and the institutions of national importance as declared by the government of India and specifically empowered by an Act of Parliament to confer or grant degrees, irrespective of their NAAC or NIRF ranking should be able to participate and register in the academic bank of credits.
    • Registration: Regulations made it compulsory for higher education institutions that received ‘A’ grade from the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) or fall in the top 100 National Institutions Ranking Framework (NIRF) rankings, to register for ABC.
      • Under the UGC (Establishment and Operation of Academic Bank of Credits in Higher Education) (First Amendment) Regulations, 2021, now any university or college, irrespective of ranking, can participate and register to come under the ABC framework.
      • This will include both central and state universities, deemed-to-be universities and autonomous institutions.

    Source: HT