World AIDS Day

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    In News

    • Every year December 1st is observed as World AIDS Day.

    World AIDS Day 2022

    • About:
      • The World Health Organization (WHO) founded World AIDS Day on December 1 in 1988.
      • It aims to promote information sharing between local and national authorities, international organisations, and private citizens.
      • “Equalize” is this year’s World AIDS Day theme.
    • Importance:
      • Approximately 38 million individuals globally carry the HIV virus
        • Despite the virus being discovered in 1984, it has claimed the lives of almost 35 million people. 

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    • Meaning:
      • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
    • Transmission:
      • It can be transmitted through the use of contaminated syringe for medical purposes or shared activities such as injecting drugs into the bloodstream, sexual intercourse which is not protected or from an infected mother to child during pregnancy, birth or through breastfeeding.
    • Prevention: 
      • There is no cure for HIV/AIDS.
      • Prevention is the best way to safeguard oneself against AIDS.
      • Health experts insist upon using protection during sex and getting tested for HIV before planning a family.
      • Effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) prevents HIV transmission from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding.
        • ART does not cure HIV but reduces its replication in the blood, thereby reducing the viral load to an undetectable level. 

    Steps taken by Government of India

    • National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) (Central Sector Scheme) 
    • India has achieved the 6th Millennium Development Goal (MDG 6) of halting and reversing the HIV epidemic.
    • Prevention from Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) programme
    • HIV/AIDS Act 2017 (prohibits discrimination or unfair treatment of HIV-infected people on any grounds)
    • PALS (PPTCT ART Linkages Software) System (Repository of HIV positive pregnant women)
    • 90:90:90 strategy as adopted by UNAIDS (90% (diagnosed, treatment (by anti-retroviral treatment (ART)) & suppression)) by 2020.
      • Extended by 10 years with the goal post of 95-95-95.
    • Social Awareness through workshops.
    • Viral Load Testing Facilities: They have been scaled up, and HIV counselling, testing and community-based screening for early diagnosis have been ramped up to achieve the target of Elimination of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV. 
    • Project Sunrise: It was launched by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (2016) to tackle the rising HIV prevalence in north-eastern states.

    Source: HT