Aatmanirbhar in Defence Production

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    • According to a recent study, India ranks fourth among 12 Indo-Pacific nations in self-reliant arms production capabilities.

    More about the study

    • SIPRI:
      • The study was released by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)
        • SIPRI is a widely respected independent resource on global security. 
    • Countries:
      • The 12 countries in the study were selected because they have the highest military spending in the region- 
        • Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam.
    • Results:
      • China tops the list, Japan is second, South Korea is in third place, and Pakistan is at number 8.
      • China: 
        • China was the world’s fifth largest arms importer in 2016-20. 
      • India: 
        • India is ranked as the second largest importer of arms for its armed forces in 2016-20. 
        • India is highly dependent on imports of complete foreign major arms, including many produced under licence or as components for its domestic production.
        • Of India’s total volume of procurement in 2016–20, 84 percent was of foreign origin. 
        • Domestic arms companies provide only 16 percent of its total procurement.
    • Indian Companies & suppliers:
      • Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd, Indian Ordnance Factories, Bharat Electronics, Mazagaon Docks and Cochin Shipyard are among the major Indian arms servicing companies. 
      • Ashok Leyland, one of the largest suppliers of trucks to the Indian Army, is the only company ranked in the top 50 in the Indo-Pacific.
    • Indicators:
      • The study, which measures self-reliance until 2020, is based on three indicators of self-reliance in each country:
        • Arms procurement: 
          • Imports, licensed and domestic production as a proportion of the government’s total procurement of major conventional arms;
        • Arms industry: 
          • The study presents the five largest arms companies in each country, where data are available, ranked by sales of arms and military services in 2020 to both domestic and export customers;
        • Uncrewed maritime vehicles, the sea equivalent of drones: 
          • Covering both uncrewed surface vehicles (USVs) and uncrewed underwater vehicles (UUVs), meant to provide a qualitative understanding of how countries are engaging domestic research institutes and firms to produce such cutting edge systems.

    Aatmanirbhar in defence production

    • Make-I Category:
      • About: 
        • Under the Defence Acquisition Procedure 2020, ‘Make’ Category aims to achieve self-reliance by involving greater participation of Indian industry.  
        • Projects involving design and development of equipment, systems, major platforms or upgrades thereof by the industry can be taken up under this category. 
      • Financial Support:
        • The Ministry of Defence will provide financial support up to 70% of the total cost of prototype development.
    • Make-II Category:
      • It is funded by industry with assured procurement. The following platform has been listed –
        • Anti-jamming Systems for Multiple Platforms
    • Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) Model:
      • Under this, private industry will be encouraged to take up the design and development of military platforms and equipment in collaboration with the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and other organisations.  
      • Following two platforms have been identified under this category.
        • Long Range Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) [High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE)]
        • Indian Multi Role Helicopter (IMRH)
    • iDEX:
      • Projects of Start-ups, MSMEs etc. involving high-end innovation would be pursued under the iDEX category and the following platform has been selected under this category –
        • Low Orbit Pseudo Satellites.

    Significance of the study

    • Maritime importance:
      • The study’s choice of maritime domain was because the Indo-Pacific region is a “maritime theatre”, and most of its flashpoints involve navies. 
    • Significance of self-reliance in the Indo-Pacific region:
      • According to the study, understanding and determining the extent of self-reliance in the Indo-Pacific region, which has several ongoing flashpoints, is crucial for trust and confidence-building among states. 
      • This region has also seen a growing allocation by states for defence procurement. 
      • Eighteen arms manufacturing companies based in the region were ranked among the world’s largest arms companies in 2020.
    • China’s ranking:
      • China’s arms industry primarily involves nine large state-owned enterprises (SOEs).
      • China also has ongoing projects, in collaboration with universities and other agencies to develop “long-range precision, intelligent, stealthy or unmanned weaponry and equipment”.
    • India’s position:
      • According to the study, the significant arms sales of local firms and the high level of licensed production push India to the fourth position in the list.

    The Indo-Pacific Region 

    • The region comprises of 
      • The Indian Ocean, 
      • The western and central Pacific Ocean, and 
      • The seas connecting the two in the general area of Indonesia. 
      • It does not include the temperate and polar regions of the Indian and Pacific oceans, nor the Tropical Eastern Pacific, along the Pacific coast of the Americas, which is also a distinct marine realm.
    • Indo Pacific and QUAD:
      • Since the late 2010s, the term “Indo-Pacific” has been increasingly used in geopolitical discourse. It also has a “symbiotic link” with the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, or “Quad”, an informal grouping between Australia, Japan, India, and the United States. 

    Source: IE