Kurukshetra October 2023

Chapter 1:  Vision for Green and Clean Rural India

  • Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all.
  • The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a collection of 17 interlinked objectives designed to serve as a "shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future. These are as shown below-






  • Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI) are adopting the vision of the Hon’ble Prime Minister’s ‘Whole of Government and Whole of Society’, approach to ensure an enhanced level of engagement and meaningful participation of different stakeholders through the localisation of SDGs (LSDGs) under 9 themes by subsuming the 17 SDGs.
  • A multipronged strategy has been adopted to localise SDGs, through joint advisories and resolution signed with concerned ministries/department.


Key Interventions-



Key interventions are needed for an efficient implementation of the theme of ‘Clean and Green Village’ that will require a concentrated effort towards the following:


  1. Awareness generation amongst the citizens on the importance of reducing waste, ensuring sustainable production and consumption of energy.
  2. Promotion of measures within the GP that would reduce environmental pollution.
  3. Taking steps to create an in-depth understanding of the term climate change and its impact.
  4. Mapping land use patterns, water bodies, forests, hill slopes, wetlands, and degraded forests within the GP.
  5. Selection of appropriate technology for water supply and sanitation.
  6. Ensuring maintenance of toilets, public spaces.
  7. Developing a comprehensive energy programme based on need assessment.
  8. Promoting adoption of Resolution of Mission LiFE and taking steps towards becoming Mission LiFE certified Panchayat.


Gram Panchayats and Theme 5 of Clean and Green Village

  • To become a Clean and Green Village, a gram panchayat must prioritise and maintenance of water and land resources, and the the preservation promotion of the generation and consumption of clean energy.
  • The Ministry of Panchayati Raj is making a concerted effort under the ‘Clean and Green Village’ theme, wherein panchayats take up activities on natural resource management, biodiversity protection, waste management, afforestation activities, water resources, health, and management of land resources.
  • Across India, 16% of Gram Panchayats have taken Sankalp (Resolution), with a focus primarily on Clean and Green Village, furthering the efforts under this theme.
  • Organic farming and marketing are yet other areas where Panchayats can focus.
  • Self-sufficient Panchayats can be the target of Panchayats working for carbon neutrality.


Open Defecation Free (ODF)

  • Around, 52% of villages are ODF Plus villages.
  • Nearly 4,25,691 villages, have sustained its Open Defecation Free (ODF) status along with implementing either solid or liquid waste management systems.
  • Various community assets have been created across villages, contributing to the ODF plus status of the GPs.

Gram Urja Swaraj Abhiyaan

  • Under the Gram Urja Swaraj Abhiyaan, GPs have developed their own implementation models with the support of Renewable energy development Agencies of the states.
  • It would help Gram Panchayats to evolve as self-sufficient in terms of energy and become producers of energy instead of only being consumers.
  • Moreover, widespread adoption of renewable energy applications in rural areas would enable the Gram Panchayats to develop own sources of Revenue (OSR) and employment opportunities for the local youth of the villages.
  • Gram Urja Swaraj Abhiyaan under the following sectors:





Mission LiFE

  • It was launched at COP26, promotes sustainable living by encouraging eco-friendly actions globally.
  • It seeks to replace the prevalent ‘use-and dispose’ economic model with a sustainable ‘circular economy' by encouraging people worldwide to adopt environmentally friendly practices in their daily lives.
  • Panchayats hold a strategic position to drive transformative change from the grassroots. They can effectively oversee the adoption of eco-friendly practices and encourage active community involvement in Mission LiFE's endeavours.
  • Through collaboration with Panchayats, Mission LiFE could gain access to local expertise, resources, and established governance mechanisms, enabling a grassroots-driven approach to sustainable living that seamlessly aligns with the mission's overarching objectives.

Capacity Building initiatives towards Clean and Green Village

  • Capacity building has been one of the major activities of Ministry of Panchayati Raj.
  • Revamped Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Abhiyan (RGSA), a centrally sponsored scheme aims to strengthen the capacities of institutions for rural local governance to become more responsive towards local development.


  • A convergence of efforts and adequate support of ministry/departmental functionaries is needed to realise the noble goal of Clean and Green Panchayat.
  • In addition, non-Governmental organisations, college students, youth organisations such as Nehru Yuvak Kendra volunteers, etc. also need to be involved for faster realisation of the goal.
  • Eventually, all Gram Panchayats/ villages need to become Clean and Green, if the LSDGs are to be attained by 2030 and the challenges posed by climate change are to be addressed.
  • The total installed renewable energy capacity in India, excluding large hydro, has crossed the mile-stone of 100 GW.
  • India stands at 4th position in the world in terms of installed renewable energy capacity, 5" in solar and 4" in wind in terms of installed capacity.


Chapter 2- Preserving the Green Cover of Indian Villages

  • Villages represent the primary unit of Indian society.
  • However, in recent times, villages are increasingly emulating urban lifestyles and transforming their built environment to reflect the same aspiration.
  • The initiative of the Local Indicator Framework (LIF) aims to establish traction with Gram Panchayats where ‘Clean and Green Villages’ is one of the themes.

The Top-down Facilitation

  • From the perspective of a top-down approach, 278,000 Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) have been interfaced by the Ministry of Panchayati Raj (MoPR) through the revised Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Yojana (RGSY).
  • It aims to carry out a set of social goals that the United Nations has deemed important for sustainable development.
  • Local Indicator Framework (LIF) is comprehensive and includes themes, such as poverty-free and enhanced livelihoods; community health; child-friendliness; water sufficiency; self-sufficient infrastructure; socially secured settlements; good governance; and engendered development.

Sourcing of Local Material for the Construction

  • The notion of a green village is inclusive of the idea of using construction materials that are environmentally appropriate.
  • Bamboo has always been used as a construction material that is available locally, can be produced through planned plantation, and is an excellent green cover solution.
  • Locally produced materials are the most aesthetically appropriate design solutions. They not only match the local context of topography and geography; they have proven to be effective in climatic response.
  • There is an ample body of knowledge about the use of local materials in construction and adequate experience to learn from. Efforts are required to upscale the experience to revive village-centric sustainable development.

Sustainable Architecture

  • It is important to create architectural design solutions for the village communities that have design quality and employ locally inspired design elements, such as motifs and carvings.
  • This has the twin objective of empowering local communities through quality designs as well as creating a sense of pride in the local design elements.
  • There is also a need for a paradigm shift in the education of various professionals for an understanding of village challenges in the contemporary aspirations of the 21st century.

Way Forward

In essence, village is the premise of ‘living with nature’. Folk life has revolved around the narrative of Jal-Jangal-Jamin. Villages are a potential opportunity for niche tourism opportunities where ‘green cover’ is a novelty for urban life. Access to educational structures imparting modern as well as traditional Indian knowledge of their settlements is vital for the communities to be active participants in the revitalization journey.


Chapter 3- Integrated Solar Village Scheme for Inclusive Development

  • Solar energy helps to provide cheap and reliable renewable power to rural households in a cost-effective way.
  • It also helps discoms reduce power procurement costs, transmission and distribution network upgrade costs, among others.
  • The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) offered capital subsidies for the installation of rooftop solar by residential households up to 10 KW of the system under phase Il of the Grid Connected Rooftop Solar Programme launched in 2019.
  • India has installed around 11 GW of rooftop solar till August 2023. The scheme has been further extended up to 2026 in October 2022.
  • Ministry simplified the process for application and securing subsidies for rooftop solar through the SPIN portal.
  • As per CEEW-Villgro estimates, DRE-based clean energy innovations, particularly in the agriculture and textile sectors, have a market potential of ~USD 50 billion and can impact 37 million livelihoods in rural India.

Rural Economy Needs Energy for Development

  • The availability of reliable electricity is essential not only for meeting households’ requirements but also for the delivery of services (such as health, education, and other social infrastructure) and creating livelihood opportunities.
  • India made significant progress by achieving nearly 100 per cent household electrification.
  • As of March 2023, a total of 2.86 crore households had been electrified across states (PIB, 2023). However, the quality of the power supply remains a challenge.

Current Electricity Supply and Power Quality Situation in Rural Households

  • The power supply situation has improved over the years in the states, with some progressing towards 24-hour supply, such as Delhi, Kerala, and Gujarat.
  • Rural India faces more power supply outages compared to urban areas, with an average of 20 hours of supply.
  • Also, power quality issues (such as long blackouts, low voltages, or appliance damage) are experienced more by rural households compared to their urban counterparts due to voltage fluctuations.

Electricity Supply to Healthcare and Educational Institutions

  • According to a 2021 study, 5 per cent of primary health centres in rural areas function without electricity.
  • The electricity situation is similar in health sub-centres, with ~12 per cent having no electricity supply (MoHFW, 2021).
  • The situation worsens for areas more prone to extreme events driven by climate change, such as the climate change-induced Kerala floods of August 2018, which disrupted the health infrastructure significantly.

An ‘Integrated Solar Village Development Scheme

States need to focus on integrated solar village development while formulating the scheme. The schemes should aim at improving the reliability and quality of power supply, boosting rural income, strengthening education and health services, and providing employment opportunities by integrating solar into the rural economy.

The major contour of these schemes could be:

  1. Demand Assessment- There is a need to assess the overall demand for electricity in the village, such as residential households, agricultural demand, government buildings etc. It helps to identify the solarization opportunity and potential for different solar applications such as solar PV, pumps, and refrigerators.
  2. Innovative Business Models- There is a need to assess the viability of different business models. Deploying rooftop solar installations is suitable for pucca houses with roof ownership. But, to overcome

the barriers of unsuitable rooftop conditions, high upfront costs, or a lack of consumer awareness, community solar models could be explored.

  1. Integrating Livelihoods through Decentralized Productive Appliances- This means identifying the potential applications, creating awareness, and incentivizing through credit access, among others.
  2. Integration with Existing Policies and Regulations - The scheme needs to identify its alignment with other existing state solar schemes, such as solar street lights and solar water heater programmes etc.
  3. Skill Development and Capacity Building- The scheme should target training youth in these rural areas to become Surya Mitras, enabling solar adoption in the state. There should be a dedicated-on gender- inclusive skill development at local levels.
  4. Models for Sustenance- There is a need to clearly define the roles and responsibilities of relevant stakeholders, from installation to maintenance.


Conclusion- There is a need to switch gears and leverage the potential in rural areas by integrating rural policies towards a common vision of poverty alleviation and promoting clean energy. However, a parallel emphasis on accelerating the deployment of distributed renewable energy (DRE) will be equally important to achieve a sustainable and people-centric energy transition.



Chapter 4- Crop Residue Management

  • Stubbles, stalks, stover, husk, bran, bagasse, and molasses are generally classified under Crop Residue.
  • Harvesting, threshing, and primary processing of crops leave behind a variety of plant materials that need safe disposal and recycling.
  • These residues, once thought to be waste, are now regarded as an important natural resource due to their versatile utility.
  • CRs are primarily used as bedding material for livestock, animal feed, soil mulching, biogas generation, bio-manure and compost, thatching for rural homes, mushroom cultivation, biomass energy production, fuel for domestic and industrial use, etc.

Problem and Perspectives

  • Every year, in India about 683 million tonnes of CRs are produced, of which nearly two-thirds are contributed by cereal crops.
  • Among cereal crops, rice generates the most gross residues followed by wheat.
  • Fibre crops residue accounts for nearly 20 per cent of the total CR generated in the country. Cotton accounts for 74 per cent of total fibre CR among fibre crops.
  • It is estimated that burning one tonne of rice straw accounts for the loss of 5.5 kg of nitrogen, 2.3 kg of phosphorus, 25 kg of potassium, and 1.2 kg of sulphur, besides organic carbon.
  • Heat generated from burning of CRs elevates soil temperatures, causing the death of beneficial soil organisms.
  • The burning of CRs is a potential source of greenhouse gases, which are responsible for aggravating the global calamity of climate change.
  • When rice straw is burned in open fields, it releases carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, sulphur oxide, and nitrogen oxide gases.
  • In spite of many long-term damages to soil and human health, farmers in north-western India often opt for the burning of paddy stubbles, mainly due to three factors:-
  1. A shortage of farm labour at a critical time of field operation;
  2. A very short span or window for the preparation of the field for the next wheat crop; and
  3. Large-scale use of a combine harvester for the harvesting of paddy.

Regulations and Solutions

  • The Central Government has launched various promotional schemes and programmes to encourage environmentally safe management of CRs, and to promote technologies for its alternative uses.
  • Financial assistance @50% is provided to the farmers for purchase of CRM machinery, and @80% is provided to cooperative societies, Farmer Producer Organisations and Panchayats for the establishment of Custom Hiring Centres in villages.
  • The scheme promotes usage of machines such as super straw management systems, happy seeders, smart seeders, mulcher, crop reapers, etc. for ‘on-form’ management of CRs, and balers & rakes for straw collection in the form of bales to facilitate its other uses.
  • Techno-commercial pilot projects will be established under the bilateral agreement between beneficiaries (farmers, FPOs, Cooperative Societies, panchayats etc.) and industries utilising paddy straw.
  • Financial support @ 65% of the project cost will be jointly borne by the Central and State Governments; 25% will be contributed by the industry; and the balance 10% will be the share of beneficiary.
  • The Indian Council of Agricultural Research has developed an innovative Pusa Decomposer technology to biologically decompose paddy stubbles in the farm.
  • It’s a microbial solution available both in liquid and capsule form for accelerated decomposition of straw.
  • Satellite monitoring and imaging showed that 92% area of the decomposer sprayed plots has been managed through decomposition and only 8% area in these plots was burned.
  • The application of composted residues to soil adds organic carbon and other essential plant nutrients to the soil and promotes microbial activity in the soil.
  • During Swachhata (cleanliness) Special Campaign 2.0 (2 Oct 2022-31 Oct 2022), the ICAR- Krishi Vigyan Kendras adopted over 900 villages across the country to demonstrate and promote microbial-based crop residue management and vermicomposting technologies were demonstrated to nearly 22,700 farmers in their fields.
  • Compared to wheat straw, rice straw is not a preferred livestock feed due to certain nutritional quality issues.
  • Crop residues can be utilised as animal bedding and then placed in dung pits to make compost.
  • Paddy straw is a nourishing substrate for mushroom cultivation. Each tonne of dry rice straw can produce 50 to 100 kg of mushroom depending on other conditions.
  • A special product called biochar can be made from rice straw, which is a carbon-rich material used as a soil amendment.
  • Rice straw is also a valuable material for surface mulch in various other crops.
  • Diversification of crops in the traditional wheat-rice system is also one of the technical solutions to minimize CR burning.

Conclusion and Way Forward- The concerted efforts of the Central Government, Government of Punjab, NCR State Governments, and other stakeholders towards better on-farm management of CRs and facilitating various options for their off-site uses have helped significantly in reducing the CR burning events.

  • Concerned states have prepared action plans to control stubble burning and regular monitoring for effective management of CRs across the region.
  • In addition to technical and financial support, intensive educational campaigns and awareness camps are also required to have the best impact.


Chapter 5- Water for Clean and Green Village

  • Government of India is operating with strategic visioning, prioritisation, and implementation methods to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with the motto of ‘Leaving No One Behind’, through the ‘Whole of Government and Whole of Society’ approach.
  • SDGs are cross-cutting in nature, and a particular SDG can be mapped to many ministries that can be addressed through various schemes.
  • Clean and green is not merely about removing garbage or planting some tree saplings; it is about health, climate action, water conservation, increasing life expectancy and well-being, and so on.

Components of a Clean and Green Village- The broad components that constitute a clean & green village are appended below-

  1. Open Defecation Free Village
  2. Clean & Green Schools
  3. Clean & Green Anganwadis
  4. Scientific management of solid waste
  5. Waste Water management
  6. Affordable & Clean energy including solar & wind energy
  7. Greening Development
  8. Promotion of organic farming and progressing reduction of chemical fertilisers & pesticides.
  9. Celebrate clean and green living.
  10. Strengthening local committees and enhancing larger participation.
  11. Supply of clean & safe drinking water.
  12. Improvement of indoor air quality.
  13. Energy conservation.
  14. Rainwater conservation including Rainwater Harvesting.


  • Green refers to a world in which natural resources, including oceans, land, and forests, are sustainably managed and conserved to improve livelihoods and ensure food security, and most importantly, protect the environment for future generations.
  • Clean refers to access to safe and adequate drinking water and sanitation services in a low-pollution, low-emission world in which cleaner air, water, and the oceans enable people to lead healthy and productive lives.

Government Initiatives for Clean and Green Village

  • Prime Minister of India launched the Swachh Bharat Mission on 2 October 2014.
  • The Swachh Bharat Mission was launched to achieve Open Defecation Free (ODF) in India in five years.
  • ODF would mean the termination of faecal-oral transmission, defined by, a) no visible faeces found in the environment/village and b) every household, as well as public/community institution(s), using a safe technology option for disposal of faeces, as defined by the Ministry.
  • The focus is to provide flexibility to State Governments, as sanitation is a state subject, to decide on their implementation policy, use of funds, and mechanisms, taking into account State-specific requirements.

Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM)

  • The Prime Minister of India launched the Jal Jeevan Mission on 15 August 2019.
  • The mission envisioned providing clean, safe, and adequate drinking water to all rural households, schools, anganwadis, and public health centres through functional tap connections by 2024.
  • Quality of water was given the utmost importance and not the infrastructure only. The main focus was on the functionality of taps.
  • As of 15 Aug 2023, 12.85 crore (66.8%) households, out of a total of 19.23 crore households in India have functional tap connections.
  • This mission has also pushed the very idea of the theme ‘Clean & Green Village’ up to a great extent and was very much instrumental in achieving the goal of Clean and Green Village.

Jal Shakti Abhiyan - Catch the Rain (JSA CTR)

  • It aims to make the Jal Andolan a Jan Andolan.
  • Government of India launched the Jal Shakti Abhiyan in 2019, a national call to action that involved States, districts, and millions of people in water conservation and recharge.
  • The campaign was implemented in 1,592 water-stressed blocks in 256 districts of the country.
  • It aims to create and maintain appropriate Rainwater Conservation Structures, suitable to the soil strata & climatic conditions of the area, with active people’s participation.
  • The campaign was implemented with the main theme ‘Catch the Rain, where it falls when it falls’.
  • Campaign has the following five focused interventions-
  1. Rainwater harvesting & water conservation
  2. Enumerating, geo-tagging & making an inventory of all water bodies; preparation of scientific plans for water conservation
  3. Setting up Jal Shakti Kendras in all districts
  4. Intensive afforestation and
  5. Awareness generation

Role of Gram Panchayat

Gram Panchayats should focus on the following for making it Green Panchayats-

  1. Awareness generation among the citizens on the importance of reducing wastage, ensuring sustainable production and consumption etc.
  2. Promotion of measures within the GPs that would reduce environmental pollution.
  3. Taking steps to create an in-depth understanding of the term ‘climate change’ and its impact among the Gram Sabha.
  4. Mapping land use patterns, water bodies, forests, hill slopes, wetlands, and degraded forests within the GP.
  5. Developing appropriate norms for sustainable utilisation of resources from common lands, water bodies, and forests on materials like non-timber forest produce, sand, fish, and water.
  6. Assessing the water needs, solid and liquid waste being generated and preparation of District and Village Water Conservation Plans.
  7. Setting the water and sanitation goals and targets for the Gram Panchayats.
  8. Selection of appropriate technology for water supply and sanitation in the GPs etc.



India is taking a lead role in developing its villages in a sustainable model. A sustainable and self-sufficient village with the theme of a ‘Clean & Green Village’, as thought by Mahatma Gandhi will improve village life and reduce the rate of migration to the cities.

It is felt that convergent action by all concerned Ministries/ Departments, among others, at the Central, State/UTs Governments level will go a long way in protecting the future of the planet by making all villages ‘Clean and green’, if SDGs are to be attained by 2030 and challenges posed by climate changes are to be addressed.


Chapter 6- Leveraging Agroecological Approaches for Clean and Green Villages

  • About 65 per cent of the country’s population lives in rural areas, and 47 per cent of the population is dependent on agriculture for livelihood (MoF, 2023).
  • There are about 6,40,000 villages in India, with 83.3 crore people.
  • Dynamic agroecological approaches can play a key role in improving villages’ conditions, providing sustainability to food systems, preserving natural resources, and mitigating climate change.
  • Agroecology principles simultaneously applies ecological and social concepts for management of food and agricultural systems.

Clean and Green Villages

  • ‘Green’ refers to a world in which natural resources, including oceans, land, and forests, are sustainably managed and conserved to improve livelihoods and protect the environment for future generations.
  • ‘Clean’ refers to access to safe & adequate drinking water and sanitation services, low-pollution, low-emission, cleaner air, water, and oceans that enable people to lead healthy and productive lives.

Components of Clean and Green Villages-

  1. Open Defecation Free Village
  2. Clean and Green School
  3. Clean and Green Anganwadi
  4. Scientific Management of Solid Waste
  5. Wastewater Management
  6. Affordable and Clean Energy
  7. Greening Development
  8. Promotion of Organic Farming & Progressive Reduction of Chemicals
  9. Celebrate Clean and Green Living
  10. Strengthening Local Committee & Enhance Larger Participation

Agroecological approaches for Clean and Green Villages

  • Agroecology is farming that “centers on food production that makes the best use of nature’s goods and services while not damaging these resources.”
  • Agroecological practices involve processes such as nutrient cycling, biological nitrogen fixation, improvement of soil structure and health, water conservation, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, biological pest control, diversification, mixed cultivation, intercropping, waste management, etc. (HLPE, 2019).
  • The agroecological practices, such as natural farming, organic farming, biofuel production, agroforestry, waste recycling, etc. can support in achieving the objectives of green and clean village and the SDG targets.

Organic and Natural Farming for Green Villages

  • Organic and natural farming practice are based on agroecological principles and exclude the use of synthetic or chemical inputs.
  • Organic and natural farming provides chemical and pesticide-free food grains and crops, improves soil health, and reduces environmental pollution.
  • Organic and natural farming are promoted by the Government of India through various schemes and programmes.
  • Organic farming is promoted through two dedicated schemes since 2015-16, viz. Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) and Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North Eastern Region (MOVCDNER), through cluster and Farmer Producer Organisations.
  • To promote alternate use of chemical fertilisers, the PM Programme for Restoration, Awareness Generation, Nourishment, and Amelioration of Mother Earth (PM-PRANAM) is launched in 2023 by Ministry of Chemical and Fertilizers.
  • Also, initiatives like construction of Soak pits, Vermicompost pit and Waste to Wealth initiatives such as reuse of waste materials, vermicomposting, recycling of non-biodegradable waste are promoted through MGNREGA by the Ministry of Rural Development towards village cleanliness.

Waste to Wealth: Towards Clean Villages

  • The biogas sector can fulfill the energy needs of the country and help regulate greenhouse gas emissions, reduce pollution, and improve waste management.
  • The Galvanising Organic Bio-Agro Resource Dhan (GOBARdhan) programme was launched in 2018, as an integral component of Solid Waste Management.
  • It is a ‘waste to wealth’ initiative wherein waste generated in villages is used to generate bio-gas or CBG as well as bio-slurry or bio-fertiliser and is in tune with the circular economy and Mission LiFE initiatives of the Government of India.
  • The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) is also supporting the installation of biogas plants and their use as a source of alternative fuels for cooking purposes in the country, including rural areas, under the National Biogas Programme.


Rural Industries-

  • The agroecological practices can augment rural industries especially through the production of biogas, manure, processing, marketing, and waste management practices that couples with clean and green programmes.
  • Biogas, a smoke-free fuel, is emerging as a promising renewable energy industry in India that is labour-intensive and can provide employment opportunities to both skilled and unskilled categories.


Clean and Green Village objectives can be expedited by scaling up agroecology-based programmes and schemes and their implementation at the grassroots level with support from panchayats, cooperatives, Self- Help Groups (SHG), and women-SHGs.


Chapter 7- Harnessing the Power of Digital Technology for Greener Villages

  • While rural areas may have lower awareness of environmental concerns compared to urban centres, it is the rural regions that bear a greater burden of challenges emerging from an overburdened environment.
  • It is due to the heavy dependence of a significant rural population on agriculture, horticulture, and animal husbandry, along with their closer connection to nature.

Role of Digital Technology

  • Recent data suggests that rural India has overshadowed urban India in terms of the growing numbers of Internet users.
  • Digital technologies can offer a unique means to raise awareness about environmental issues and foster sustainable practices.
  • By leveraging various digital initiatives, the nation is equipping its people with sustainable agricultural practices using content and mobile technology, benefiting millions of farmers, increasing yields, conserving water, and promoting sustainable farming.
  • Swachh Bharat Mission is also employing digital tools like geotagging and mobile apps to track progress and engage communities in sanitation efforts.
  • These endeavours underscore India's commitment to leveraging digital technology for a more sustainable and connected future.

The Government's Approach

  • The Government of India is employing digital technologies to advance environmental protection and awareness in a multifaceted strategy.
  • It has developed mobile applications that serve as educational tools, offering citizens information about environmental issues and solutions and empowering them to take meaningful actions.
  • It aims to directly engage citizens in environmental protection efforts, utilising online platforms to gather feedback, solicit innovative ideas, and mobilise individuals for active participation in environmental conservation initiatives.


Challenges facing-

  1. Lack of Awareness:There is still a lack of awareness about environmental issues among many people in India.
  2. Digital Divide: Lack of access to digital devices, limitations to connectivity, an uninterrupted power supply, and a lack of digital literacy pose challenges to the success of digital initiatives.
  3. Lack of Resources: Given the size of our country, there will always be limitations to the resources than can be employed to implement all of the Government's environment protection and awareness initiatives.
  4. Lack of Coordination: Between different stakeholders involved in the processes, including the Central and State government agencies, non-profits, rural bodies, communities, and the private sector.

The Namami Gange Project

  • The Namami Gange project, a government- led initiative aimed at revitalising the Ganga River, has harnessed the potential of digital technologies to facilitate its ambitious cleanup mission.
  • It involves utilising satellite imagery to meticulously track the extent of pollution within the Ganga River.
  • Geospatial technologies play a pivotal role in mapping the river's intricate course. This mapping serves as a foundational tool for planning cleanup activities and continuously monitoring project advancement.
  • Namami Gange project actively engages citizens in the cleanup drive.

The Watershed Organisation Trust

  • It was established in 1993 as an internationally recognised nonprofit organisation and think tank,
  • It operates at the convergence of practice, knowledge, and policy, collaborating with diverse stakeholders across sectors to address the multifaceted challenges faced by vulnerable rural communities in India.
  • It aims at ensuring water and food security, livelihoods, and income stability to support the sustainable development and well-being disadvantaged rural populations.
  • WOTR harnesses various digital technologies to further their environmental sustainability objectives in villages.
  • It has significantly improved water availability, reduced soil erosion, and promoted biodiversity conservation in rural India.

The Centre for Environment Education

  • It is nonprofit organisation founded in 1984, is dedicated to promoting environmental education and sustainable development in India.
  • CEE’s mandate is to promote environmental awareness nationwide.
  • It develops innovative programmes and educational material and builds capacity in the field of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD).
  • It is committed to ensuring that Environmental Education (EE) leads to action for sustainable development.
  • It uses social media as a powerful tool to extend its reach, particularly in rural India.

The Digital Green Initiative

  • Digital Green is a global development organization dedicated to improving the lives of smallholder farmers in countries like India, Ethiopia, and Afghanistan.
  • They achieve this through a combination of digital technologies and local partnerships.
  • It focuses on promoting sustainable farming practices and enhancing food security.
  • Environmental protection is a significant aspect of Digital Green's work.


Conclusion- India is making remarkable strides in harnessing digital technologies to empower its rural communities and propel them towards the creation of green villages. Government initiatives continue to evolve and expand, India is on a promising trajectory towards a greener, more sustainable future where rural populations are equipped with the information and support they need to thrive in harmony with the environment.




Q1. Sustainable development does not end sustainability of environment and resource system; it also requires sustainability of economic and social systems. Explain.

Q2. India has immense potential of solar energy though there are regional variations in its developments. Elaborate

Q3. What do you understand by agrobiodiversity? Examine its significance in light of climate change, sustainable agriculture and poverty.